Book

Lillard, A. S. (2017). Montessori: The science behind the genius (3rd edition). New York: Oxford University Press.
Find it on Amazon.com

Media Mentions

  • "Doing it for Real" The Dallas Morning News, August 29, 2017
  • "Put Aside Those Toys: Your Kids Want The Real Deal" UVA Today, August 23, 2017
  • "How creative learning could benefit Southeast Asia's children." Southeast Asia Globe, October 3, 2016
  • "This Is When Racial Bias Begins To Impact A Child's Empathy For Pain, Study Suggests." Huffington Post, March 4, 2014
  • "If you are reading this article, your kid probably doesn't need preschool." Slate, January 16, 2013.
  • "Pretend play may not drive child development as much as once thought." APA Monitor, December 2012.
  • Journal Articles

    In Press

    Published

      2017
    • Lillard, A. S. (2017). Why Do the Children (Pretend) Play?. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. Link to PDF
    • Taggart, J., Heise, M.J. & Lillard, A. S. (2017). The real thing: Preschoolers prefer actual activities to pretend ones. Developmental Science. Link to PDF
    • Dore, R.A., Hoffman, K.M., Lillard, A.S. & Trawalter, S. (2017). Developing cognitions about race: White 5- to 10-year-olds' perceptions of hardship and pain. European Journal of Social Psychology. Link to PDF
    • Eisen, S., & Lillard, A. S. (2017). Young children's thinking about touchscreens versus other media in the US. Journal of Children and Media. Link to PDF
    • Dore, R.A., Smith, E.D. & Lillard, A.S. (2017). Children adopt the traits of characters in a narrative. Child Development Research. Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A. S., & Eisen, S. (2017). Why Montessori is a facilitative environment for theory of mind: Three speculations. In V. Slaughter & M. de Rosnay (Eds.), Theory of mind development in context. Pp. 57-70. London: Routledge.
    • 2016
    • Kang, E., Klein, E., Lillard, A. & Lerner, M. (2016). Predictors and moderators of spontaneous pretend play in children with and without autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Psychology. Link to PDF
    • Eisen, S. & Lillard, A.S. (2016). Just Google it: Young children's preferences for touchscreens versus books in hypothetical learning tasks. Frontiers in Psychology. Link to PDF
    • Hopkins, E.J., Smith, E.D., Weisberg, D.S. & Lillard, A.S. (2016). The development of substitute object pretense: The differential importance of form and function. Journal of Cognition and Development. Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A. S. (2016). Montessori education and creativity. AMI Communications.
    • Lillard, A. S., & Heise, M. J. (2016). Removing supplementary materials from Montessori classrooms changed child outcomes. Journal of Montessori Research. Link to PDF
    • 2015
    • Dore, R. A., Smith, E. D., & Lillard, A. S. (2015). How is theory of mind useful? Perhaps to enable social pretend play. Frontiers in Psychology: Cognitive Science. Link to PDF
    • Dore, R. A., Jaswal, V. K., & Lillard, A. S. (2015). Real or not? Informativeness influences children's reality status judgments cognitive development. Cognitive Development. Link to PDF
    • Dore, R. A., & Lillard, A. S. (2015). Theory of mind and children's engagement in fantasy worlds. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality. Link to PDF
    • Hopkins, E. J., Dore, R. A., & Lillard, A. S. (2015). Do children learn from pretense? Journal of Experimental Psychology. Link to PDF
    • Lerner, M. D., & Lillard, A. S. (2015). From false belief to friendship: Commentary on Fink, Begeer, Peterson, Slaughter, & de Rosnay. British Journal of Developmental Psychology. Link to PDF
    • Li, H., Boguszewski, K., & Lillard, A.S. (2015). Can that really happen? Children's knowledge about the reality status of fantastical events on television. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A.S. (2015). The development of play. Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science. Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A. S., Drell, M., Richey, E., Bogusweski, K., & Smith, E. D. (2015). Further examination of the immediate impact of cartoons on childrens executive function. Developmental Psychology. Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A. S., Dore, R. A., Hopkins, E. J., & Smith, E. D. (2015). Challenges in the study of pretend play: What can we know, and how can we know it? Handbook of the Study of Play. Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A. S., Li, H., & Boguszewski, K. (2015). Television and children's executive function. In J. B. Benson (Ed.), Advances in Child Development and Behavior. Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A. S., & Woolley, J. D. (2015). Grounded in reality: how children make sense of the unreal. Cognitive Development. Link to PDF
    • Van Reet, J., Pinkham, A. M., & Lillard, A. S. (2015). The effect of realistic contexts on ontological judgments of novel entities. Cognitive Development. Link to PDF
    • Woolley, J. D., & Lillard, A. S. (2015). Cognizing the unreal. Cognitive Development. Link to PDF
    • Dore. R.A. & Lillard, A.S. (2014). Do children prefer mentalistic descriptions? Journal of Genetic Psychology. Link to PDF
    • 2014
    • Dore, R. A., Hoffman, K., Lillard, A. S., & Trawalter, S. (2014). Childrens racial bias in perceptions of others pain. British Journal of Developmental Psychology. Link to PDF
    • Dore, R. A., Lillard, A. S., & Jaswal, V. K. (2014). Anthropologists in the crib [Review of the book Trusting What You're Told: How Children Learn from Others, by P.L. Harris]. Journal of Cognition and Development. Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A. S., & Kavanaugh, R. D. (2014). The contribution of symbolic skills to the development of an explicit theory of mind: Scale models, language, and pretend play. Child Development. Link to PDF
    • Oishi, S., Jaswal, V. K., Lillard, A. S., Mizokawa, A., Hitokoto, H., & Tsutsui, Y. (2014). Cultural variations in global versus local processing: A developmental perspective. Developmental Psychology. Link to PDF
    • 2013
    • Hirsh-Pasek, K., Russ, S., & Lillard, A. S. (2013). Probing play: What does the research show. American Journal of Play. Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A. S. (2013). Playful learning and Montessori education. American Journal of Play, 5(2), 157-186. Reprinted in The NAMTA Journal.Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A. S., Lerner, M. D., Hopkins, E. J., Dore, R. A., Smith, E. D., & Palmquist, C. M. (2013). The impact of pretend play on children's development: The state of the evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 139(1), 1-34.Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S., Hopkins, E. J., Dore, R. A., Palmquist, C. M., Lerner, M. D., & Smith, E. S. (2013). Concepts and theories, methods and reasons: Why do the children (pretend) play? Reply to to Weisberg, Hirsh-Pasek, and Golinkoff (2012); Bergen (2012); and Walker and Gopnik (2012). Psychological Bulletin, 139(1), 49-52.Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S., Russ, S., Golinkoff, R., & Hirsch-Pasek, K. (2013). Probing play: The research we need. American Journal of Play, 6(1), 161-165. Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A. S., & Smith, E. D. (2013). Entwining teaching and research: Creating a collaborative review paper from a seminar. The APS Observer, 26(8), 31-32.
    • Ma, L., & Lillard, A. S. (2013). What makes an act a pretense one? Young children's pretend-real judgments and explanations. Child Development Research, 2013, 9 pages.Link to pdf
    • Smith, E. D., Englander, Z. A., Lillard, A. S., & Morris, J. P. (2013). Cortical mechanisms of pretense observation. Social Neuroscience, 8(4), 356-368. Link to PDF
    • 2012
    • Lillard, A. S. (2012). Preschool children's development in classic Montessori, supplemented Montessori, and conventional programs. Journal of School Psychology, 50, 379-401.Link to pdf
    • Smith, E. D., & Lillard, A. S. (2012). Play on: Retrospective reports of the persistence of pretend play into middle childhood. Journal of Cognition and Development, 13(4), 524-549.Link to pdf
    • 2011
    • Lillard, A. S. (2011). Materials: What Belongs in a Montessori Primary Classroom? Results from a Survey of AMI and AMS Teacher Trainers. Montessori Life, Fall, 18-32.Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S. (2011). Mindfulness Practices in Education: Montessori's Approach. Mindfulness, 2(2), 78-85. doi: 10.1007/s12671-011-0045-6.Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S., & Erisir, A. (2011). Old dogs learning new tricks: Neuroplasticity beyond the juvenile period. Developmental Review, 31, 207-239.Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S., & Peterson, J. (2011). The Immediate Impact of Different Types of Television on Young Children's Executive Function. Pediatrics, 128(4), 644-649. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-1919Link to pdf
    • 2008
    • Lillard, A. S. (2008) How important are the Montessori materials? Feature article in Montessori Life, 4, 20-25.Link to pdf
    • Van Reet, J., Pinkham, A. S., and Lillard, A. S. (2008). The development of the counterfactual imagination; Commentary on Byrne. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 30, 468-9. Link to pdf
    • 2007
    • Lillard, A. S., & Else-Quest, N. (2007). Response to "Studying Students in Montessori Schools" by P. Lindenfors. Science, 315, 596-597. Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S., Nishida, T., Massaro, D., Vaish, A., Ma, L., & McRoberts, G. (2007). Signs of pretense across age and scenario. Infancy, 11(1), 1-30.Link to pdf
    • Nishida, T., & Lillard, A. S. (2007). The informative value of emotional expressions: Social referencing behavior in mother-infant pretense. Developmental Science, 10(2), 205-212. Link to pdf
    • 2006
    • Lillard, A. S (2006). Dissociations, developmental psychology, and pedagogical design. Child Development, 77(6), 1563-1567. Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S. & Else-Quest, N. (2006). Evaluating Montessori education. Science, 313, 1893-1894. Link to pdf
    • Ma, L., & Lillard, A. (2006). Where is the real cheese: Young children's understanding of pretense. Child Development, 77(6), 1762-1777. Link to pdf
    • 2005
    • Callaghan, T., Rochat, P., Lillard, A. S., Claux, M. L., Odden, H., Itakura, S., Tapanya, S., & Singh, S. (2005). Synchrony in the onset of mental state reasoning: Evidence From 5 cultures. Psychological Science, 16(5), 378-384. Link to pdf
    • 2004
    • Ganea, P. A., Lillard, A. S., & Turkheimer, E. (2004). Preschooler's understanding of the role of mental states and action in pretense. Cognition & Development, 5(2), 213-238. Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S. (2004). Montessori: The Science. Proceedings of the Association Montessori Internationale.
    • Lillard, A. S. (2004). Discriminating pretense and real snacks: A fundamental problem in early social cognition. British Developmental Psychology Forum, 62, 9-17.
    • Lillard, A. S., & Witherington, D. S. (2004). Mothers' behavior modifications during pretense snacks and their possible signal value for toddlers. Developmental Psychology, 40, 95-113. Link to pdf
    • Richert, R., & Lillard, A. S. (2004) Observers' proficiency at identifying pretend acts based on different behavioral cues. Cognitive Development, 19, 223-240. Link to pdf
    • 2002
    • Richert, R., & Lillard, A. S. (2002). Children's understanding of the knowledge prerequisites of drawing and pretending. Developmental Psychology, 38, 1004- 1015. Link to pdf
    • Sobel, D., & Lillard, A. S. (2002). Children's understanding of the mind's involvement in pretense: do words bend the truth? Developmental Science, 5, 87-97. Link to pdf
    • 2001
    • Lillard, A. S. (2001). Pretend play as Twin Earth: A social-cognitive analysis. Developmental Review, 21, 495-531. Link to pdf
    • Sobel, D. M., & Lillard, A. S. (2001). The impact of fantasy and action on young children's understanding of pretence. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 19, 85-98. Link to pdf
    • 2000
    • Lillard, A. S., Zeljo, A., Curenton, S., & Kaugers, A. (2000). Children's understanding of the animacy constraint on pretense. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 46, 21-44. Link to pdf
    • 1999
    • Lillard, A. S. (1999). Developing a cultural theory of mind: The CIAO approach. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 57-61. Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S. (1999). Siegal on Piaget's legacy: Gricean child meets blundering experimenter. Developmental Science, 2, 18-21.
    • Lillard, A. S. (1999). A cultural feast. Cross-Cultural Psychology Bulletin, March, 22-26.
    • Lillard, A. S., & Curenton, S. (1999). Do young children understand what others feel, want, and know? Young Children, 54, 52-57. Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S., & Sobel, D. M. (1999). Lion Kings vs. puppies: the influence of fantasy on children's understanding of pretense. Developmental Science, 2, 75-80. Link to pdf
    • 1998
    • Lillard A. S. (1998). Ethnopsychologies: Reply to Wellman & Gauvain. Psychological Bulletin, 123, 43-46. Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S. (1998). Casting the theory net wide. Review of Gopnik & Meltzoff (1997). Contemporary Psychology, 43, 663-665.
    • Lillard, A. S. (1998). The source of universal conceptions: A look from folk psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, 580.
    • Lillard, A. S. (1998). Theories behind theories of mind. Human Development, 41, 40-44.
    • Lillard, A. S. (1998). Wanting to be it: Children's understanding of intentions underlying pretense. Child Development, 61, 981-993. Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S. (1998). Ethnopsychologies: Cultural variations in theory of mind. Psychological Bulletin, 123, 3-30. Link to pdf
    • 1997
    • Lillard, A. S. (1997). Other folks' theories of mind and behavior. Psychological Science, 8, 268-274. Link to pdf
    • 1996
    • Lillard, A. S. (1996). Body or mind: Children's categorizating of pretense. Child Development, 67, 1717-1734. Link to pdf
    • 1993
    • Lillard, A. S. (1993). Moving forward on cultural learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 528-529.
    • Lillard, A. S. (1993). Pretend play skills and the child's theory of mind. Child Development, 64, 348-371. Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S. (1993). Young children's conceptualization of pretense: Action or mental representational state? Child Development, 64, 372-386. Link to pdf
    • 1992
    • Lillard, A. S., & Flavell, J. H. (1992). Young children's understanding of different mental states. Developmental Psychology, 28, 626-634. Link to pdf
    • 1990
    • Lillard, A. S., & Flavell, J. H. (1990). Young children's preference for mental state versus behavioral descriptions of human action. Child Development, 61, 731- 741 Link to pdf

    Book Chapters

    • Lillard, A. S., & Eisen, S. (2017). Why Montessori is a facilitative environment for theory of mind: Three speculations. In V. Slaughter & M. de Rosnay (Eds.), Theory of mind development in context. (pp. 57-70). London: Routledge.
    • Lillard, A. S., Dore, R. A., Hopkins, E. J., & Smith, E. D. (2015). Challenges to research on play: Mending the methodological mistakes. In J. E.Johnson, & S. G. Eberle (Eds.), Handbook of the Study of Play. (pp. 445-452). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    • Lillard, A. S. (2011). Mother-Child Fantasy Play. In A. Peligrini (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of the Development of Play (pp. 284-295). New York: Oxford.
    • Lillard, A. S., Pinkham, A. S., & Smith, E. D. (2010). Pretend play and cognitive nd development. In U. Goswami (Ed.), Handbook of cognitive development (2 pp). London: Blackwell.
    • Pinkham, A. S., Van Reet, J., and Lillard, A. S. (2009). Concepts: Children's reasoning about the psychological world. In R. A. Shweder, T. R. Bidell, A. C. Dailey, S. D. Dixon, P. J. Miller, and J. Modell (Eds.), The Child: An Encyclopedic Companion (pp. 197-199). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    • Lillard, A.S. (2007). Pretend play in toddlers. In C. Brownell & C. Kopp (Eds.), Early Socioemotional Development, New York: Guilford.
    • Lillard, A.S. (2007). Mothers' structuring and others' interpreting of pretend play. In A. Goncu & S. Gaskins (Eds.), Play and Development: Evolutionary, Sociocultural and Functional Perspectives (pp. 131-153). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    • Lillard, A.S. (2006). Inside/outside: Where children from different cultural contexts focus their explanations for behavior. In A. Antonietti, O. Liverta-Sempio, & A. Marchetti (Eds.), Theory of mind and language in developmental contexts (pp. 65-76). New York: Springer.
    • Lillard, A.S. (2005). The Montessori Method. In N. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Human Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    • Lillard, A. S. (2004). Pretend play and cognitive development. In U. Goswami (Ed.), Handbook of cognitive development (1st ed., pp. 188-205). London: Blackwell.
    • Lillard, A. S., & Skibbe, L. E. (2004). Theory of Mind: Conscious attribution and spontaneous trait inference. In R. Hassin, J. Uleman, & J. Bargh (Eds.), The new unconscious (pp.277-308). NY: Oxford. (2nd Ed.)
    • Lillard, A. S. (2002). Just through the looking glass: Children's understanding of pretense. In R. Mitchell (Ed.), Pretending and imagination in animals and children (pp. 102-114). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Lillard, A. S. (2001). Explaining the connection: Pretend play and theory of mind. In S. Reifel (Ed.), Theory in context and out. Vol. 3, Play and culture studies (pp. 173-178). Westport, CT: Ablex.
    • Lillard, A. S. (2001). Pretending, understanding pretense, and understanding minds. In S. Reifel (Ed.), Theory in context and out. Vol. 3, Play and culture studies (pp. 233-254). Westport, CT: Ablex.
    • Lillard, A. S. (1998). Playing with a theory of mind. In O. N. Saracho & B. Spodek (Eds.), Multiple perspectives on play in early childhood education (pp. 11-33). Series Editor: M. Jensen. New York: SUNY Press.
    • Lillard, A. S. (1994). Making sense of pretence. In C. Lewis and P. Mitchell (Eds.), Children's early understanding of mind: Origins and development (pp. 211-234). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    • Harris, P. L., Lillard, A. S., & Perner, J. (1994). Commentary: Triangulating pretence and belief. In C. Lewis & P. Mitchell (Eds.), Children's early understanding of mind: Origins and development (pp. 287-293). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.