1. Which type of stem cell would you use to clone yourself?

a)     An embryonic stem cell

b)    A totipotent stem cell

c)    A nuclear transplant stem cell

d)    An embryonic germline stem cell

e)    None of the above

 

2. You are considering using a crop of plants modified to produce Bt-toxin. What could be the disadvantage(s).

a) the process of mutating plants to produce Bt-toxin could mutate the DNA of

anyone who eats the plants and Bt-toxin itself could cause sickness in people

who ingest it

b) Bt-toxin in the plants could poison and kill anyone who eats them and Bt-

toxin would cause brain damage to livestock raised on farms with these crops

c) Bt-toxin would cause crops to ripen slower and would hurt poor farmers

d) the plants with Bt-toxin could kill beneficial insects along with pests

and overuse could lead to development of resistance in pests

 

3. If you were going to try to make a clone from the cell line(s) below, which are the best sources of DNA for cloning?

a)     Bone marrow stem cells

b)    Nuclear transplant stem cells of adult origin

c)     Adult stem cells

d)   Embryonic stem cells

e)     All are equally good

 

4. Which of the below manipulations were not used in the process of making

Dolly the sheep?

a)     Ewes were pretreated with GnRH to promote egg formation

b)    Adult cells were obtained from the animal to be cloned

c)    Electric pulses were used to fuse adult cells with freshly obtained unmodified eggs

d)    Embryos were implanted into receptive females

e)     All of the above were used

 

5. What is the best evidence that Dolly is indeed a clone of another sheep?

a)     She exhibits the same behavior as the female sheep she was born from

b)   She has the nuclear DNA markers only from the donor female sheep

c)     She has some of the DNA markers from the female donor sheep and some from the male donor

d)    She has the same genetic disease as the sheep she was born from and the same behavior as the donor female sheep

e)     None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. If you did genetic fingerprinting of Dolly, the donor female sheep, and the sheep that Dolly was born from, what markers would you expect to find shared between the various different sheep?

a) Dolly would have nuclear markers from the sheep she was born from and

mitochondrial markers from the sheep she was born from

b) Dolly would have nuclear markers only from the sheep she was born from

c) Dolly would have nuclear markers from both female sheep

d) Dolly would have mitochondrial markers only from the egg donor female

sheep

e) None of the above

 

7. You have one of the below conditions. Which is most likely to be also present in your clone?

a)    Schizophrenia

b)   autism

c)     bipolar disorder

d)    anorexia

e)    bulimia

 

8. What modified plants are currently used in agriculture?

a) rice modified to be fortified in vitamins

b) plants with bacterial vectors that produce only antibiotic resistance that

can be used as vaccines

c) plants with decreases in specific enzymes that render them slow to ripen

d) a and c

e) none of the above

 

9. Dolly the cloned sheep has which of the following known problems?

a)     Her telomeres have been completely lost

b)    Her DNA has become over-methylated

c)     Her DNA is over-mutated

d)    She has large offspring syndrome

e)    None of the above

 

10. Telomeres and telomerase perform the following function:

a)     They help stop the effects of harmful radiation on DNA

b)    They allow cells to become stem cells

c)    They maintain portions of ŇjunkÓ DNA on the ends of chromosomes that prevent gene loss from DNA replications

d)    They are the sites of DNA methyation in the genome

e)     They block the formation of cancer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

111. A mutation that can lead to a genetic disorder in blood cells occurs in a single cell of an individual. Which is correct about the affect of this mutation?

a) a somatic mutation in a single multipotent precursor blood cell would cause a large effect in the individual because many red blood cells would be produced with the mutation

b) the mutation would not be passed on to offspring as long as it occurred in any somatic cell of the individual

c) the mutation would cause the most lasting and severe effect if it occurred in the egg or sperm from the parents of the individual since the mutation would be present in every cell of the individual and be passed to offspring

d) all of the above

e) none of the above

 

12. Which of the below cells are expected to have the highest telomerase levels?

a)     Brain cells

b)    Liver cells

c)     Islet cells

d)   Cancer cells

e)     None have any telomerase

 

13. You have a new shampoo, which you suspect has a carcinogen. You send it off to the lab for an Ames test. Choose the result below that indicates that you have a mutating agent in the shampoo. The results listed are the number of antibiotic resistant bacteria, per 10,000,000,000 cells tested, either before / after shampoo treatment. So a) 10/10 means that the non-shampoo-treated bacterial sample had 10 resistant cells and the shampoo-treated bacterial sample also had 10 resistant cells.

a)     10/10

b)    10/1

c)    1/10

d)    100/100

e)     1/1

 

14. What is DNA methylation?

a) a chemical modification on telomerase that activates it in cancer cells

b) a way that mutagens and chemicals that change DNA allow bacteria to survive antibiotics

c) a chemical modification on DNA that can regulate gene expression

d) a chemical modification of DNA whose increase allows cell immortality

e) none of the above

 

15. Which of the below produces the greatest amount of radiation (in mrem)?

a)     Chest X-ray

b)    Mammogram

c)     The general background dose from living a year

d)   The amount that makes you sick

e)     All of the above have the same dose

 

16. The following all contain the general sequence of events in the life of an average virus. Which is in the correct order?

a)     Bind to cell membrane; replicate genome; unpackage DNA/RNA; integrate into genome; escape from cell

b)    Bind to cell membrane; integrate into genome; replicate genome; unpackage DNA/RNA; escape from cell

c)    Bind to cell membrane; unpackage DNA/RNA; integrate into genome; replicate genome; escape from cell

d)    Bind to cell membrane; integrate into genome; unpackage DNA/RNA; escape from cell; replicate genome

e)     Bind to cell membrane; replicate genome; integrate into genome; unpackage DNA/RNA; escape from cell

 

17. The following is an advantage of AAV over retroviruses as human vectors for genetic modification:

a)     AAV causes cancer

b)   AAV integrates into only one well characterized spot in the genome

c)     AAV integrates into many areas of the genome which are inactive

d)    AAV can only infect dividing stem cells

e)     AAV is completely safe

 

18. The following will not likely cause an inherited genetic modification:

a)    retroviral modification of blood

b)    retroviral modification of sperm prior to fertilization

c)     retroviral modification of an egg prior to fertilization

d)    retroviral modification of the germline during embryogeneis

e)     None of the above will result in an inherited genetic modification

 

19. During routine retroviral modification of a human patient, he develops leukemia. You want to know if the retrovirus might be responsible. You obtain blood cells from the patient, make a cancerous cell line and examine for which:

a)     To see if telomerase activity has decreased

b)   To see if the retrovirus has integrated close to and modified a known cancer-causing oncogene

c)     To see if the rate of mutagenesis has increased

d)    To see if DNA methylation has decreased

e)     To see if the cells grow out of control and are metastatic

 

20. When is the Malthus effect expected to appear for humans again?

a)     2100

b)    2200

c)     2300

d)   2020

e)     Never

 

 

 

 

 

21. Which plant modifications are likely to be produced by selective breeding alone?

a)     Edible vaccines

b)   Increased crop yield

c)     Bacterial pesticide production

d)    Human hormone production

e)     Vitamin A fortified rice

 

22. What marker does a plasmid-cloning vector contain for use in bacterial

propagation of the DNA?

a)    Antibiotic resistance

b)    Bt resistance

c)     Vaccine gene

d)    Herbicide resistance

e)     Reverse transcriptase

 

23. What is Bt toxin protein?

a)     A natural agent used to remove hair

b)    A type of plant engineered to be naturally pest resistant

c)    A protein from the spore of a bacterium which acts as a pesticide

d)    A general herbicide which allow no-till agriculture

e)     None of the above

 

24. You are trying to develop a way to vaccinate people against a new virus that has recently been discovered. What method(s) would you test that are currently considered possible or feasible as vaccination options?
           a) Ingestion of a plant that produces the viral proteins

b)    Injection of heat or UV inactivated virus

c)     Injection of purified viral protein

d)    Injection of a similar but harmless version of the virus

e) all of the above could potentially be developed as a vaccine

 

25. How does no-till agriculture work?

a)     Alter pest insect genetically so that they attack weeds instead of crops

b)   Genetically engineer plants to be resistant to a specific herbicide and then use herbicide to kill weeds

c)     Make fruit with a long shelf life so that there is a long space between tilling

d)    Expose unmodified plants to bacterially derived Bt toxin and let it select for those that donŐt need to be tilled

e)     None of the above

 

26. Three new special supplements have been announced which will reverse aging. Take a look at the three and decide which you think might have any biochemical potential of inducing rejuvenation as opposed to just blocking the aging process.

a)     An agent that stops DNA mutagenesis

b)    An agent that increases DNA methylation

c)    An agent that lengthens telomeres

d)    None of the above

e)     All of the above

 

27. A religious cult develops an agent that they claim (based on my lectures!) will reverse aging by increasing telomerase activity throughout the body. They feed their children this agent but all become sick. You receive tissue samples from the sick children and expect most likely to find the following:

a)     Extra large organs

b)    Loss of hair and other dividing tissues

c)    Leukemia or other cancers

d)    Various genetic disorders

e)     None of the above

 

28. You have made a clone of yourself and want it to be as similar to you as possible. When should you start emulating the exact environmental conditions under which you became who you are?

a)     At puberty

b)   At conception

c)     After the second trimester

d)    After the child learns to walk

e)     In the 2 to 8 year period

 

29. A large group of human clones have been made. They all appear healthy. Thirty years later, their first offspring appear. They all die at birth. Where would you first look for problems given precedence in test animals?

a)     At their DNA methylation

b)    At mutagens in their bloodstream

c)    At their telomeres

d)    At the viral integration sites

e)     None of the above

 

30. You are a constitutional lawyer hired to defend the practice of inherited genetic modification of humans. You want to show that there is precedence for the use of genetic modification or controlling the genotype of offspring in humans. Choose from the examples below, which you would use:

a)     Eating genetically modified foods and embryo sorting

b)    Retroviral gene therapy and genetically modified foods

c)     Edible vaccines and retroviral gene therapy

d)   Genetic sorting of embryos and mate selection

e)     Retroviral gene therapy and AAV gene therapy

 

31. You are the spokesperson for a large food distributor. It was just shown that a type of taco you sell contains genetically modified Bt corn. A public uproar begins. You decide to defend the inclusion of this type of corn. Choose the most reasonable argument from the options below.

a)     The shelf life of the tacos will be longer

b)   The plants used will be free of chemical pesticides

c)     The plants used no-till agriculture and so were easier on the land

d)    The methods used to make this corn date back thousands of years

e)     None of the above

 

32. A friend thinks you are crazy when you tell them telomerase could affect cellular immortality. What evidence would you give your friend to prove you arenŐt trying to pull one over on them?

a) cells without telomerase activity cannot replicate and telomerase activity correlates with how quickly a cell divides

b) cancer cells decrease their telomerase activity in order to be able to divide uncontrollably and telomerase is required to regulate gene expression

c) stem cells all lack telomerase and cells with more proteins have increased telomerase activity

d) cancer cells have both increased telomerase activity and immortality and the number of times a cell can replicate correlates with its amount of telomerase

e) only cells with telomerase activity can replicate and cells with high telomerase are always immortal

 

33. What is ANDi?

a) a method of embryo sorting by DNA fingerprinting

b) a type of virus used to infect non-dividing cells

c) a monkey infected with a retrovirus containing green fluorescent

protien (GFP) but failed to express the integrated gene

d) a monkey infected with a retrovirus containing green fluorescent

protein (GFP) and successfully expressed the integrated gene

e) a monkey infected with the adeno-associated virus containing green

fluorescent protein (GFP) but failed to express the gene

 

34. Which of the following is not a current form of transgenic

agriculture?

a) vitamin A fortified rice

b) herbicide-resistant plants

c) bt crops

d) slow ripening fruits

e) none of the above (i.e. all are forms of transgenic/genetic modification agriculture)

 

35. The ability of a man and woman, both of who are carriers for cystic fibrosis, to ensure that their child will not suffer from the disease depends on what technology?

a) Karyotyping
b) Nuclear stem cell transfer
c) Embryo genotyping and sorting

d) Development of nude mice to test embryonic stem cells
e) Vector cloning

 

 

 

 

 

 

36. A new technique is made to cure cystic fibrosis by infecting somatic cells with a retrovirus that carries a ÔgoodŐ copy of the deficient gene. What problems can arise when using retroviruses for gene therapy?
           a) High potential to mutate

b) Can recombine with cryptic viruses
c) Potential to insert into endogenous genes and damage general cell function
d) Ability to insert into genes that control cell growth and can cause tumor formation
e) All of the above

 

37. You are a dairy farmer who wants to increase milk production on your farm. Which of the following methods could be used to produce cows that make more milk?

a) Selective breeding
b) Genetic modification
c) Selective breeding and genetic modification

d) Genetic modification using a retrovirus with the ADA gene
e) Selective breeding and genetic modification using a retrovirus with the ADA gene

 

38. A researcher is using the carcinogens-test to measure the effect of a new carcinogen on cells. What type of a gene mutation would cause a tumor to grow among the cells that were exposed to this new carcinogen?
           a) An increase in methylation rates
           b) A decrease in telomerase activity
           c) A decrease in the ability of all of the cells to mutate
           d) An increase in cell growth rates

           e) An increase in antibiotic vulnerability

 

39. A research lab begins to clone a version of a TV star dog, but all attempts to create a cloned puppy have failed due to large offspring syndrome. What might be causing the problem leading to these failed attempts?
a) Inability to reprogram the methylation of cytosines in the donor DNA

b) Using an electric pulse to fuse the cytoplasm of egg donor and DNA donor

c) Incorrect genetic fingerprinting of donor DNA
d) Use of embryonic stem cells for donor DNA
e) A different number of short tandem repeats (non-telomere-associated

short tandem repeats) in the donor and egg DNA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

40. You are arguing that retroviral gene therapy is a viable potential therapy to a reporter for the newspaper who states that this therapy is too dangerous since it could cause insertion into genes that disrupts their function. What would be your argument that this would only be a rare effect?

a) retroviruses only integrate into one specific spot in the human genome which only disrupts a single gene which has not been shown to cause a disease

b) retroviruses only cause mutations genomes of germline cells donŐt divide so donŐt pass their genes on to any other cells in an individual or their offspring

c) given the relatively large amount of junk DNA the chances of retrovirus insertion into a place in the genome that caused a bad effect are very slim

d) retrovirus is only able to invade cancer cells so would only mutate and kill these cells so would actually be additionally beneficial

e) retrovirus only infects non dividing cells so only mutates DNA in cells of body are already dead]

 

 

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