Five Components of Effective Reading Instruction

Phonemic Awareness

The ability to hear, identify and manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words. Phonemic awareness is the understanding that the sounds of spoken language work together to make words.

Phonemic Awareness Guide

Pictorial Case Study


The understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes (the sound of spoken language) and graphemes (the letters and spellings that represent those sounds in written language). Readers use these relationships to recognize familiar words accurately and automatically and to decode unfamiliar words.

Phonics Guide

Pictorial Case Study: Phonics for the Beginning Reader

Pictorial Case Study: Phonics for the Instructional Reader

Pictorial Case Study: Phonics for the Emergent Reader

Reading Comprehension Strategies

Strategies for understanding, remembering and communicating with others about what has been read. Comprehension strategies are sets of steps that purposeful, active readers use to make sense of text.

Reading Comprehension Guide

Pictorial Case Study

Reading Fluency, including oral reading skills

Fluency is the ability to read text accurately and quickly with expression. It provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension. Fluent readers recognize words and comprehend at the same time.

Reading Fluency Guide

Pictorial Case Study: Fluency in the Classroom

Vocabulary Development

Development of stored information about the meanings and pronunciation of words necessary for communication.

Vocabulary Development Guide

Pictorial Case Study

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