William Augustus Bowles at his Trading Post on the Chattahoochee River in Florida with Members of the Creek Nation, 1790 (Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts)


Moore, Peter. World of Toil and Strife: Community Transformation in the Carolina Backcountry, 1750-1805. USC Press, 2007.

Waselkov, Gregory A. Powhatan’s Mantle: Indians in the American Southeast. Nebraska, 2006.

Wright, J. Leitch. William Augustus Bowles, Director General of the Creek Nation. University of Georgia Press, 1967.

Hurt, R. Douglas. The Indian Frontier, 1763-1846. University of New Mexico Press, 2002.

Hahn, Steven The Invention of the Creek Nation, 1670-1763. Nebraska, 2004.

1. This view illustrates the engagement of European and Native cultures in the Southern backcountry. Discuss the cultural mix of the Southern backcountry.

2. The Native Americans shown in this image are Creek. Discuss the history of the Creek in the South and their relationship to the broader Five Tribes tradition. Consider issues of nationhood and independence from the U.S. or other colonial powers.

3. Discuss the ways this painting implies the superiority of whites over Natives. Discuss this painting in relation to other artistic representations of Native Americans in the South.

4. The "Indian Trade" was an essential component of early Southern economies. Discuss the range of goods that were traded and the cultural exchange this represented.