Tall Clock, ca. 1810, Southern Valley of Virginia (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)

Tall Clock

Hurst, Ronald L. and Jonathan Prown. Southern Furniture 1680-1830: The Colonial Williamsburg Collection . Williamsburg : Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1997, esp. 586-591.

Koons, Kenneth and Warren Hofstra, eds. After the Backcountry: Rural Life in the Great Valley of Virginia, 1800-1900. University of Tennessee Press, 2000.

Smith, Mark M. Mastered by the Clock: Time, Slavery, and Freedom in the American South. Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press, 1997.

Bailyn, Bernard. The Peopling of British North America : An Introduction. New York , 1986.

Lewis, Johanna Miller. Artisans in North Carolina Backcountry. Lexington : University Press of Kentucky , 1995.

Beeman, Richard R. The Evolution of the Southern Backcountry: A Case Study of Lunenburg County, Virginia , 1746-1832 . Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, 1984.

1. One of the most visually arresting tall case clocks made in America , this piece clearly stands outside the prevailing aesthetic norms in America . What does the unusual character of this clock reveal about the cultural diversity and the process of acculturation in the Virginia backcountry?

2. Clocks were rare in the 17th century, but became more common in the 18th. About one in four gentry households had a clock by the third quarter of the 18th century. Examining probate inventories. Where would clocks be found? How much were they worth in comparison to other household goods? http://www.gunstonhall.org/probate/inventory.htm

3. In a period when few individuals had watches, how was time managed and how did Americans understand time? Discuss the changing perception of time by both blacks and whites.

4. Discuss the role of German artisans in the formation of the early South.