"Reformed Birth and Baptismal Certificate," drawn by Barbara Becker Haman, 1806, Shenandoah County, Virginia (Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folkart Center)

Birth Certificate

Weiser, Frederick S. “Piety and Protocol in Folk Art: Pennsylvania German Fraktur Birth and Baptismal Certificates,” Winterthur Portfolio 8 (1973): 19-44.

Yoder, Don. “Fraktur: "Introduction” in Discovering American Folklife: Studies in Ethnic, Religious, and Regional Culture . Ann Arbor , MI : UMI Research Press, 1990.

Wust, Klaus. "Fraktur and the Virginia Germans" in Arts in Virginia (Fall 1974): 2-11.

Moyer, Dennis K. Fraktur Writings and Folk art Drawings of the Schwenkfelder Library Collection . Kutztown , Pa. : Pennsylvania German Society, 1998.

Calvert, Karin. Children in House: The Material Culture of Early Childhood, 1600-1900 . Boston : Northeastern University Press, 1992.

Hurst , Ronald L. and Jonathan Prown, Southern Furniture 1680-1830: The Colonial Williamsburg Collection . Williamsburg : Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1997.

1. Discuss the history of Fraktur as an art form.

2. Discuss the various symbols on this Fraktur. What might they mean? Discuss this Fraktur as a statement of both religiosity and family record.

3. This Fractur was an illustrated birth certificate. Discuss the material culture of early childhood in the 18th and 19th centuries.

4. In what ways does this object share visual characteristics with other German decorative arts.