John Stanyarne Grave Marker (c. 1749), Circular Congregational Churchyard, Charleston, South Carolina

Stanyarne Grave Marker Stanyarne Grave Marker detail

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Combs, Diana. Early Gravestone Art in Georgia and South Carolina . Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1985.

Frey, Sylvia and Betty Wood. Come Shouting to Zio: African American Protestantism in the American South and British Carribean to 1830. University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Litten, Julia. The English Way of Death: The Common Funeral since 1450. London, 1991.

Rauschenberg, Bradford L. "Coffin Making and Undertaking in Charleston and its Environs, 1705-1820." Journal of Early Southern Decorative Arts 16.1 (1990): 18-63.

Bellows, Barbara L. Benevolence Among Slaveholders: Assisting the Poor in Charleston, 1670-1860. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1993.

1. Discuss the material culture of death and the cult of mourning in the 18th century.

2. Many English funeral rituals continued in use among the English in the colonies. Discuss the various rituals that are likely to have been part of Stanyarne's funeral.

3. The portrait on the Stanyarne stone replaced death's head and soul's head imagery from earlier decades. What are the theological implications of all three visual references?

4. Gravestones marked the burials of the elite. Discuss the material culture and funeral rites for poor whites and slaves.