"Self-inquiry is the direct path to Self-realization or enlightenment. The only way to make the mind cease its outward activities is to turn it inward. By steady and continuous investigation into the nature of the mind, the mind itself gets transformed into That to which it owes its own existence."
On p. 5 of I Am That (1984), Nisargadatta Maharaj says,
"The only difference between us is that I am aware of my natural state, while you are bemused. Just like gold made into ornaments has no advantage over gold dust, except when the mind makes it so, so are we one in being -- we differ only in appearance. We discover it by being earnest, by searching, enquiring, questioning daily and hourly, by giving one's life to this discovery."
And on p. 98-99, he says,
"As long as you do not see that it is mere habit, built on memory, prompted by desire, you will think yourself to be a person -- living, feeling, thinking, active, passive, pleased or pained. Question yourself, ask yourself. 'Is it so?' 'Who am l'? 'What is behind and beyond all this?' And soon you will see your mistake. And it is in the very nature of a mistake to cease to be, when seen."
As with all practices, it is necessary to describe this practice as though we are individuals who are practicing it. By now, this mode of description should not confuse you. Whether or not any practice happens is not up to us. There is never a doer in any practice, just as there is never a doer in any other action.
Since awakening can only happen from outside of time, no practice, which is always in time, can bring it about. However, practices help to quiet the thinking mind and to point it to what is beyond the mind. Associated with this process is a diminished sense of separation and suffering, including the emotions of anxiety, fear, guilt, envy, hatred, and judgment.
Inquiry, as described by Ramana Maharshi [see Talks With Sri Ramana Maharshi (1955), a free download at http://sriramanamaharshi.org/booksfordownlaod.html] and by Nisargadatta Maharaj [see I Am That (1984), a free download at http://www.celextel.org/home.html] is the direct approach in the sense that it directly questions the illusory "me" and reveals the pure Presence of our true nature. It is the only practice that does not reinforce the sense of personal doership (as we have seen in Chapter 20, inquiry is implicit in understanding). Initially inquiry is seemingly practiced by the "me", but the practice itself shows us that there is no "me". It shifts the identity away from the mind and its concepts, which by their very nature are contracting and limiting, towards the expansiveness and limitlessness of pure Presence. It is a valuable sitting meditation technique as well as an eyes-open technique used in activity.
Inquiry is an investigation into the distinction between the self and the Self, i.e., between what changes and what does not change. It is not mysterious or mystical and can be practiced by anybody. It is a process of becoming aware of pure Presence and directing the attention towards its Source, which is pure Awareness. This produces disidentification from all thoughts, feelings, emotions, sensations, perceptions, and actions. This does not mean that they end, only that there is no longer the fiction of an entity that thinks, feels, perceives, acts, and suffers.
We first describe inquiry as an explicit technique. Later we shall broaden it so that it is less ritualistic, and becomes simply an increasing awareness of our misidentifications and of our true nature in all life situations.
In Samuel Bercholz's book, Entering the Stream (1993), the 2nd Dalai Lama (1475 – 1541) [the current Dalai Lama is the 14th]) says,
"Sometimes, the thought of "I" suddenly arises with great force....The situation is like that of a rock or a tree seen protruding up from the peak of a hill on the horizon: From afar it may be mistaken for a human being. Yet the existence of a human in that rock or tree is only an illusion. On deeper investigation, no human being can be found in any of the individual pieces of the protruding entity, nor in its collection of parts, nor in any other aspect of it. Nothing in the protrusion can be said to be a valid basis for the name 'human being.'
"Likewise, the solid "I" which seems to exist somewhere within the body and mind is merely an imputation. The body and mind are no more represented by the sense of 'I' than is the protruding rock represented by the word "human." This 'I' cannot be located anywhere within any individual piece of the body and mind, nor is it found within the body and mind as a collection, nor is there a place outside of these that could be considered to be a substantial basis of the object referred to by the name 'I'."
|Exercise: Examine where "you" seem to be located. Do "you" seem to be located in the head, in the heart, somewhere else, or nowhere at all? Do "you" seem to be located in different places at different times? Do "you" sometimes seem to be located in somebody else's body, in a pet's body, or in a plant? If "you" seem to be located in a specific place, do "you" have a sense of separation from everything else? If "you" seem to be located nowhere or everywhere, do "you" still have a sense of separation?|
In the meditation for January 29 of A Net of Jewels (1996), Ramesh says,
"The personal self or "me" imagines itself to be limited and confined to a particular body. Self-enquiry seeks the source of this spurious "me" by focusing on it the spotlight of attention or awareness, whereupon the "me" vanishes because it does not have any independent existence. It is revealed as being merely an illusion. What remains is that same universal Consciousness that was always already there as the true nature or very BEING of the artificial "me."
On p. 2 of I Am That (1984), Nisargadatta Maharaj says,
"It is enough to know what you are not. You need not know what you are. For as long as knowledge means description in terms of what is already known, perceptual, or conceptual, there can be no such thing as self-knowledge, for what you are cannot be described, except as total negation. All you can say is: ‘I am not this, I am not that’. You cannot meaningfully say ‘this is what I am’. It just makes no sense. What you can point out as 'this' or 'that' cannot be yourself. Surely, you can not be 'something' else. You are nothing perceivable, or imaginable. Yet, without you there can be neither perception nor imagination. You observe the heart feeling, the mind thinking, the body acting; the very act of perceiving shows that you are not what you perceive."
The practice of inquiry can lead to a temporary state of detachment that can be quite disconcerting. The ego thinks this is a problem but, like all ego problems, it eventually passes. In the August 2006 issue of the Advaita Fellowship Newsletter, Wayne Liquorman (one of Ramesh's enlightened students) says,
"One of the most discouraging and unpleasant phases in the evolution of this Understanding is the point at which you find yourself feeling remote and disconnected from all that is happening around you. It as if the world has gone completely grey -- nothing is important, nothing hurts particularly badly but nothing feels particularly joyous either. You're not really depressed but you're not really happy -- everything has a sameness about it.
"Such a condition often coincides with the initial recognition that you are not truly the author of your thoughts, feelings or actions. It is as if the ego, having been exposed for what it ISN'T shifts its involvement into a new gear. No longer able to claim to be the author it now poutingly claims that there is nothing worth authoring. Yes, it is another lie but it is a persuasive one. As with the previous lie, the lie of personal authorship, a possible solution is to fix it in the bright light of inquiry. Is it true? Is the appearance the reality?
"Eventually the clouds disperse and the greyness goes with it. The landscape of life is once again illuminated in all its beauty and all its ugliness...all its joys and all its sorrows...what is seen is what has always been there...an infinite, fantastic diversity."
The first step in self-inquiry is to become aware of feelings that are uncomfortable. Examples are desire, lust, envy, anxiety, fear, shame, guilt, contempt, resentment, anger, rage, hatred, helplessness, hopelessness, defectiveness, and despair (see Section 11.8, Chapter 22).
Since suffering is always a result of believing that a feeling/thought belongs to "me" (see Section 14.5, Chapters 21, 22), not the feeling or thought itself, the next step is to see who it is that the feelings/thoughts belong to. This is appropriately called self-inquiry (uncapitalized) because it questions the existence of a separate self that can have feelings/thoughts.
Thus, whenever you are suffering, ask a question like,
Who do these thoughts belong to?
Who do these feelings of depression, helplessness, anxiety, anger/rage/hatred, regret/guilt/shame, envy, despair, etc. belong to?
Who is this "I"?
then look for the "I", image, feeling, or thought with which you are identifying. The more specific the question is, the more effective it will be. Don't conceptualize an answer! As soon as you begin looking, disidentification from attachment to the pattern of thoughts and emotions will begin, and you will start to feel relief. On looking, you may see nothing, in which case the suffering is clearly groundless. But you may also see an image of a fearful (or guilty, ashamed, angry, helpless, etc.) victim, or you may just sense a vague, undefined object; but this image cannot be You since You are what is aware of it. You may recognize it as some kind of parent or child figure from your past, but most likely it will be highly distorted. As soon as you see what you are identifying with, suffering will diminish even though the emotion itself may not.
You can even apply this practice to instances when you are feeling no particular emotion, but when your intuition tells you the ego is at work. For example, the ego may ask the question, "Who was "I" in "my" last life?" or, "What will happen to "me" when "I" die?" Both questions are loaded with the assumption that there really is an "I". You may then ask the counter-question, "Who is it that is asking this?" and then look for who it is that is asking. It will be clear that the "I" does not exist when you are unable to find it.
|Exercise: Close your eyes and see if you can find the "I". Remember that if you can see or sense it, it cannot be you.|
Since the sense of doership or thinkership is essential to the belief in the "me", a particularly useful form of self-inquiry is to ask, and then to look for the doer or thinker. Do not try to force, direct, or conceptualize an answer. That will defeat the purpose of the exercise. Just look for an image, entity, or sensation. You may find a localized sensation somewhere in the head or chest regions. However, as always, anything that you can see, no matter how subtle or close to you, cannot be you because you are what is seeing it. You may also find nothing at all. In that case, it is even more obvious that there is no thinker or doer.
|Exercise: Sit upright and close your eyes. After a few minutes of
resting quietly, sink inward and downward out of the head and into the
body and feel the breath. After a few more minutes, become aware of your
thoughts while still feeling the breath. Where are your thoughts coming
from? If you think you are thinking them, try to find the thinker. If
you cannot find the thinker, what can you conclude about it?
Now become aware of your feelings. Where are they coming from? If you think they are coming from you, try to find the feeler. If you cannot find it, what can you conclude about it?
A more subtle sense of doership is observership. Even if you cannot find a locus of doership anywhere in the body, there can still be identification with the sense of an "I" that is observing. Whenever you have the sense that "you" are the observer, total disidentification has not yet occurred.
Another approach to inquiry is to investigate the true nature of a thought, feeling, or emotion and where it comes from. For example, if guilt, shame, anger, or hatred arises, ask, "What is this, really?", and, "Where is this coming from?" Don't conceptualize an answer! If it is seen that such emotions simply arise spontaneously from the background of pure Presence and do not come from some object that you call "I", then disidentification will occur and they will no longer bother you, although they may still be present. These examples all illustrate the principle that the way to see what we are is to see what we are not.
Ramesh advocates a form of inquiry when he asks the seeker to verify whether or not free will exists by watching to see whether decisions are spontaneous or not. "Nonvolitional" thoughts are easily seen to come from nowhere, but there may be a strong sense that "volitional" thoughts come from "me". However, inquiry into this "me" will reveal either a location in the body or its nonexistence. In the former case, since you can perceive its location, it cannot be you. In the latter case, the thought clearly comes from nowhere.
Furthermore, by careful watching, we can see that all thoughts, feelings, emotions, sensations, perceptions, and actions appear out of nowhere and disappear into nowhere. Thus, we cannot be the author of any of them.
In all applications of inquiry, the purpose in asking the question is simply to focus the attention. This in itself is not inquiry, however. Inquiry consists in looking for the object questioned without conceptualizing an answer. It is the looking and either finding or not finding that is important. In both cases we have become disidentified from what we are looking for.
We can practice self-inquiry (lower case) simply by being aware of all of our thoughts, feelings, emotions, and sensations. In doing so, we see that all objects are nothing but mental objects, and that, merely by becoming aware of them, we spontaneously begin to disidentify from them. This is the essence of mindfulness meditation, which is discussed in Sections 14.6, 24.2.
Mindfulness in sitting meditation is a challenge because of our tendency to become lost in thoughts of the past or future, but every time we return to Awareness it is a true awakening. Mindfulness in activity is even more of a challenge because of our conditioning as the "I" who suffers. However, in either sitting meditation or in activity, mindfulness is greatly aided by noting and naming our attachments and returning to Awareness (see Chapter 22).
On p. 247 of "I Am That" (1984), Nisargadatta Maharaj says,
"If you are angry or in pain, separate yourself from the anger and pain and watch them. Externalization is the first step to liberation. Step away and look. The physical events will go on happening, but by themselves they have no importance. It is the mind alone that matters."
To St. Francis of Assisi (1182-1226, founder of the Franciscan Order of the Roman Catholic Church) is attributed the remark (footnote in Posthumous Pieces (1968), p. 139),
"What you are looking for is what is looking."
This is also a succinct statement of the intent of Self-inquiry (capitalized), which means to look for what is looking, or to be aware of what is aware.
"Just keep in mind the feeling 'I am', merge in it, till your mind and feeling become one. By repeated attempts you will stumble on the right balance of attention and affection and your mind will be firmly established in the thought-feeling 'I am'. Whatever you think, say, or do, this sense of immutable and affectionate being remains as the ever-present background of the mind."
And on p. 220, he says,
“To be aware is to be awake. Unaware means asleep. You are aware anyhow, you need not try to be. What you need is to be aware of being aware. Be aware deliberately and consciously, broaden and deepen the field of awareness. You are always conscious of the mind, but you are not aware of yourself as being conscious.”
In the meditation for October 4 of A Net of Jewels (1996), Ramesh says,
"How can you find true happiness? For happiness, no positive action is necessary or even possible. Turn yourself inward as the pure, impersonal witness, and you will rest in you true BEINGNESS in utter peace and tranquility. Happiness will become irrelevant."
In the meditation for April 5, he says,
"Stand in your original state of wholeness, the state before you were born when there was no knowledge "I am" and therefore no need or want of any kind. All suffering will end as soon as you stand in pure Awareness."
In the March 2008 Advaita Fellowship Newsletter, Wayne Liquorman says,
"This Living Teaching is right here, right now. It
is, in fact, as close to you as your breath. When you look deeply into yourself
you may be able to see that there is, in this moment, a quality of aliveness
that is animating you that is not philosophical and is not abstract. It's there!
It is coursing the blood through your veins, it is animating your breath, it is
what makes it possible for you to think and speak and see and hear.
This is something that is essential and fundamental and true. It's independent of what you think about it, what you believe about it and what you feel about it. It is here, and with Grace you dissolve into it. You recognise your true self in it. It is this living force, this animating force that has manifested into the complexity we call Life. It is this living force that has manifested into this being which you call yourself."
We will never be satisfied with anything in the world because everything in it changes. The only thing that will ever really satisfy us is our true Self, which transcends all changes.
Whenever we are suffering, we focus the attention on what is looking by asking a question something like,
What is it that is aware?
What is it that never changes?
What is it that cannot be affected?
and then we look. We don't conceptualize an answer! By looking, we will become disidentified from any kind of thought or image that we see. If we have the sensation that what is observing is located in the head or chest, remember again that anything that we are aware of cannot be what is aware. This applies to any sense of localization, even to the observer itself. We may now realize that Awareness is what we really are. As Awareness, we are not in a body, the body appears in us. In fact, all objects appear in us.
We stay in this state until involvement with thoughts recurs, then we repeat the question and look again. This state is one of lightness and transcendence in which we are disidentified from everything in manifestation.
|Exercise: Whenever you are suffering, ask, What is it that is aware? What is it that never changes? What is it that cannot be affected? See if you can find what it is that is aware. What do you find? If you cannot find it, what does that imply about it? Is your suffering affected? If so, how?|
|Exercise: With your eyes closed, see if you can find an observer that is observing. If you cannot find one, what does that imply about the observer?|
Exercise: If there seems to be an observer observing, there must be an awareness that is aware of the observer. Now, ask, What is it that is aware of this observer? and then look.
|Exercise: In order to investigate Awareness, ask the following question: What is it that is aware of Awareness? Then look and see what the question is pointing to. If you see any kind of form, object, or location, even the most subtle one, ask, What is it that is aware of this (form, object, or location)? and then refocus your attention. For example, you might visualize Awareness as being located in the head. If so, ask, What is it that is aware that Awareness is located in the head, and again look and see. Since any form, object, or location whatsoever is not Awareness because Awareness is what is aware of it, you will not be able to describe Awareness. However, by doing this exercise, you will be able to recognize that Awareness is what you truly are.|
With practice, we find that we can rest in Awareness for longer and longer periods before asking again. Eventually, we are able to omit asking, and to simply rest in Awareness. And finally, we may realize that Awareness is always what we are, and is always what we have been.
Every incident of suffering is another cue to disidentify. Whatever happens or does not happen is never up to "us", so the only thing that "we" can "do" in any situation is to disidentify from it. This will bring an immediate but profound sense of silence and peace which will be irresistible inspiration for continued disidentification.
When we are identified with the thinking mind, there is emptiness, frustration, dissatisfaction, anxiety, and boredom. Our security cannot be found in what is ever-changing. It can only be found in what is never-changing.
What we are looking for is what is looking. We are the home of peace and fulfillment and everything We really want. When we rest in Awareness, We see directly that there is no doer. We are not a concept or object because We are What is aware of them. The activities of the body-mind and of the rest of the world continue but they do not affect Us. The more time We spend resting in Awareness, the more peace We feel. If we were suffering before, we might even forget why we were.
Do not be deceived by the apparent simplicity of this practice! It is far more powerful than the mind can ever imagine because it brings us to the real I, which transcends the mind and therefore cannot be understood by the mind.
In the meditation for February 19 in A Net of Jewels (1996), Ramesh says,
"When conceptualizing ceases, the outward false-seeing stops, and what remains is in-seeing, not seeing inside but seeing from [without] as the source of all seeing."
Every instant of disidentification helps us to reinforce the apperception (nondual awareness) that we are not the doer. Of course, whenever an activity requires intense concentration in order to be efficiently done, we become identified, not as the doer, but as the activity itself, so there is no suffering, i.e., the thinking mind is absent and only the working mind is present (see Section 11.9).
Initially, inquiry is most easily practiced in sitting meditation with a minimum of distractions (see Section 24.3). However, its real value is realized only when we remain disidentified in all forms of activity. Ultimately, Self-inquiry is transformed from an active practice into the realization that ever-present, pure Witnessing is what we are. In the meditation for December 16 in A Net of Jewels (1996), Ramesh says,
"Self-inquiry is a passive rather than an active process. Mind is allowed to subside into its source even while engaged in normal activity, which then becomes an undercurrent of witnessing that gradually extends throughout all waking hours and begins to pervade all one's activities without intruding on them or interfering with them."
Nisargadatta Maharaj was a striking example of successful inquiry. In an article in the October 1978 issue of The Mountain Path, Jean Dunn, a disciple of his, wrote that he once said,
"When I met my guru he told me, ‘You are not what you take yourself to be. Find out what you are. Watch the sense "I Am", find your real Self.’ I did as he told me. All my spare time I would spend looking at myself in silence. And what a difference it made, and how soon! It took me only three years to realize my true nature."
Complementary (but not opposite) to pure Awareness is pure Presence (see Section 14.3). As long as we are embodied, we can sense pure Presence. Pure Awareness is what is aware of pure Presence, while pure Presence is pure experiencing itself.
This observation leads to the following practice:
|Exercise: Close your eyes and go inward and downward out of the head and into the body and sense Presence. With your eyes still closed, see if you can find any boundaries to it. If you can find any, where are they? If you cannot find any boundaries, how can there be any when your eyes are open?|
In the present moment, there is no suffering. It is our identification with the past and future, both of which are nothing but concepts of the thinking mind, that keeps us in time and in suffering. We can see this directly by focusing on the present moment and noticing what happens to our suffering.
|Hint: When going to bed for the night or taking a nap, try going inward and downward, and sensing Presence. This will stop the thinking mind and allow sleep to come more quickly.|
In the meditation for November 29 of A Net of Jewels (1996), Ramesh writes,
"The root of frustration which the civilized man feels today lies in the fact that he lives not in the present moment but for the illusory future, the future which is only a creation of brain and therefore a mere inference based on memory, a futile abstraction at best."
In the past is guilt and regret. In the future is fear and clinging. Freedom lies only in the present moment. If we think about the future, it is either the thinking mind diverting our attention from the present moment in order to further its own survival (see Section 11.9), or it is the working mind making legitimate plans in the present moment for the future actions of the body-mind (Section 11.9). The first does not reduce suffering and usually increases it. The second does not increase suffering and may decrease it.
When the thinking mind wants to reduce suffering, it plans to do it in the future. In this way, suffering is prolonged indefinitely because there will always be a future in which to reduce the suffering. The only way suffering can end is for it to happen now.
If we want our suffering to end, our intention must be for it to end in the present moment. This is the only way to short-circuit the thinking mind. Furthermore, when our intention is for our suffering to end in the present moment, our attention is automatically directed to the present moment. Then, whatever thoughts or actions are necessary arise in the working mind rather than the thinking mind.
We can enter the present moment through several gateways:
1. Through the mindful use of a mantra (see Section 19.1);
2. Through noticing and naming our attachments (see Chapter 22);
3. Through going inward and downward and feeling the breath (see Section 24.2);
4. Through going inward and downward, and sensing Presence (see above);
5. Through focusing on our work;
6. Through focusing on the hereness and nowness of the present moment ("Be Here Now", see Section 12.1).
7. Through trusting Awareness (see Section 19.3).
Pure Awareness is timeless and changeless. We can be aware of Awareness whether our attention is inward or outward. Even though there is no suffering when we are aware of Awareness, there may be pain or discomfort (see Section 21.1). Furthermore, honest, authentic speech and action can happen only in pure Awareness when the thinking mind is absent.
Exercise: Become aware of Awareness. Are you still suffering?
Exercise: Trust Awareness. What happens to your suffering when you trust Awareness?
Inquiry consists not just of the special techniques described above. It is even more a stance which inquires into the reality of all aspects of life. Its usefulness is not limited to inquiring into the existence of the "me". It can be broadened to investigate the true nature of any object, whether physical or mental, and whether internal or external. For example, What is this, really? Where is this coming from?. Don't conceptualize an answer! Investigation will immediately show that all objects, including the body-mind organism itself, arise from the Background of pure Presence. There is no such thing as an external object (see also Chapter 9). All things arise from the Background, dissolve into the Background, and consist of the Background (immanent God, see Section 14.3).
You can see a similar effect by alternately opening and closing your eyes. When they are closed and before thoughts arise, you see a blankness, which is analogous to the Background. When you open them again, objects appear and are superimposed on the blankness. In a similar way, all objects at all times arise from the Background and disappear back into the Background whether the eyes are open or closed.
Exercise: Close your eyes, go inward and downward,
and sense the background of Presence.
Awareness is the transcendent, unchanging Reality and the Source of the immanent Background, whether "inward" or "outward". True seeing can be facilitated by inquiring, "What is the unchanging reality of this object?", and then looking. A growing awareness of the Background and seeing that it and all of the objects in it are manifestations of Awareness is called the "direct path" by some sages (see also Section 16.1).
We can practice inquiry no matter what we are doing or what is happening because its essence is to be aware and to discriminate between what is real and what is not. Eventually, inquiry may cease to be a practice and may become simply a continuing awareness of our true nature.
As we disidentify, we see that neither the world nor the mind is our home. We will never find what we are looking for there. Our home is pure Awareness, which is nowhere and nowhen because it transcends all locations in space and time.
The questions and examples given above are only suggestions. Your intuition will suggest other questions or applications that are effective for you.
We can go no further than to be what we already are, which is pure Awareness. How do we be Awareness? One way is to inquire into what it is that is aware, and to see that nothing we can be aware of can be what is aware (see Sections 18.2, 23.3). This means that we are not a thought, not a feeling, not an emotion, not a body sensation, not a perception, not any object of awareness; we are what is aware of them.
The next step is to shift our perception so that we are aware of all objects from the outside. When perception shifts in this way, we see that all objects, whether subjective or objective, are inside us and nothing is outside us. The result is that the illusion of separation disappears and suffering ends.
Inquiry, especially in activity, plus a deepening understanding of the metaphysics of nonduality, will alleviate suffering, bring peace, and may ultimately allow awakening or enlightenment to happen. We must remember, however, that awakening is purely spontaneous and it cannot be brought about by any efforts of the "I" or "me" since they themselves are the problem. Inquiry merely establishes the conditions whereby understanding can spontaneously deepen from the intellectual level to the intuitive level and become enlightenment.
As we have seen, every object whether we consider it to be external or internal, is a mental object. The world, the guru, the saint, the sinner, the feeling of bondage or liberation, the hallucination, the dream, all are mental objects. However, there is a difference between the guru and most other thoughts. The function of the guru or spiritual teacher is to turn the mind towards its Source and away from the guru itself. If a teacher does not do this, he/she is a false teacher because the mind must find its Source before awakening can occur. The teacher is dispensable after fulfilling this function. Indeed, we might say that the function of the teacher is to make himself/herself dispensable.
Some people seek answers to questions like, "Why is all of this happening?" or "Why is there so much suffering in the world?" Such questions always come from the viewpoint of the individual. At the individual level, there are no answers. At the level of Awareness, there are no questions. The best way to answer them is to adopt the perspective of impersonal, unmanifest Awareness, which is what we are, rather than of the individual, which is what we are not.
Ramana Maharshi termed the state of enlightenment brought about through inquiry as sahaja samadhi. He also called this the natural state, in which there is complete absorption in the Self, so there is no ego but there is still awareness of the world, which is seen to be identical with the Self. For comparison, the ultimate state of transcendence through yoga is called nirvikalpa samadhi. In that state, there is no ego and no awareness of the world, but there is pure Peace. The difficulty with it is that, on coming out of it, the ego or thinking mind tends to arise again. A third form of samadhi is savikalpa samadhi, in which there is no "me", and the mind is totally absorbed in an object. This can occur when there is intense focus on some consuming activity, such as art, music, athletics, or science. Again, the difficulty is that the ego usually returns when the focus ends.