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Davis & Davis

Green Chemistry Cover Article: Critical Review

Selective Oxidation of Alcohols and Aldehydes over Supported Metal Nanoparticles

Oxidation is a key reaction in organic synthesis and will likely play a significant role in the development of value-added chemicals from biomass. The application of heterogeneous catalysis and molecular oxygen to oxidation reactions offers a green alternative to traditional, toxic chemical oxidants. However, making comparisons of catalyst performance (reaction rate, product selectivity) between reports in the literature is difficult because of inconsistencies in the ways results are reported. Herein, we examine the literature on supported metal catalysts for the oxidation of molecules of interest in biomass conversion (primary alcohols, polyols, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and various sugars). Reaction rates are calculated and compared in a consistent manner and recommendations for avoiding common pitfalls in kinetic investigations are made.

Reproduced from Green Chemistry with permission from The Royal Society of Chemistry.



Journal Articles



161. B. Huang, P. Bai, M. Neurock, R.J. Davis, “Conversion of n-Hexane and n-Dodecane over H-ZSM-5, H-Y and Al-MCM-41 at Supercritical Conditions,” Appl. Catal. A, Gen. 546 (2017) 149-158.

160. J. Xie, P. Duan, N. Kaylor, K. Yin, B. Huang, K. Schmidt-Rohr, and R.J. Davis, “Deactivation of Supported Pt Catalysts during Alcohol Oxidation Elucidated by Spectroscopic and Kinetic Analyses,” ACS Catal. 7 (2017) 6745-6756.

159. K. Yin, S. Mahamulkar, J. Xie, H. Shibata, A. Malek, L. Li, C.W. Jones, P. Agrawal, R.J. Davis, “Catalytic Reactions of Coke with Dioxygen and Steam over Alkaline-earth-metal-doped Cerium-Zirconium Mixed Oxides,” Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 535 (2017) 17-23.

158. S. Hanspal, Z.D. Young, J.T. Prillaman, R.J. Davis, “Influence of Surface Acid and Base Sites on the Guerbet Coupling of Ethanol to Butanol over Metal Phosphate Catalysts,” J. Catal. 352 (2017) 182-190.

157. B.A. Vaughan, S.K. Khani, J.B. Gary, J.D. Kammert, M.S. Webster-Gardiner, B.A. McKeown, R.J. Davis, T.R. Cundari, T.B. Gunnoe, “Mechanistic Studies of Single-Step Styrene Production Using a Rhodium(I) Catalyst,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139 (2017) 1485–1498.

156. J. Xie, K. Yin, A. Serov, K. Artyushkova, H.N. Pham, X. Sang, R.R. Unocic, P. Atanassov, A.K. Datye, R.J. Davis, “Selective Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols over Atomically-dispersed Non-Precious Metal Catalysts,” ChemSusChem 10 (2017) 359-362.

155. K. Yin, R.J. Davis, S. Mahamulkar, C.W. Jones, P. Agrawal, H. Shibata, A. Malek, “Catalytic Oxidation of Solid Carbon and Carbon Monoxide over Cerium-Zirconium Mixed Oxides,” AIChE J. 63 (2017) 725-738.

154. N. Kaylor, J. Xie, Y.-S. Kim, H.N. Pham, A.K. Datye, Y.-K. Lee, R.J. Davis, “Vapor Phase Deoxygenation of Heptanoic Acid over Silica-Supported Palladium and Palladium-Tin Catalysts,” J. Catal. 344 (2016) 2002-2012.

153. S. Mahamulkar, K. Yin, P.K. Agrawal, R.J. Davis, C.W. Jones, A. Malek, H. Shibata, “Formation and Oxidation/Gasification of Carbonaceous Deposits: A Review,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 55 (2016) 9760-9818.

152. J. Xie, B. Huang, K. Yin, H. Pham, R. Unocic, A. Datye, R.J. Davis, “Influence of Dioxygen on the Promotional Effect of Bi during Pt-catalyzed Oxidation of 1,6-Hexanediol,” ACS Catal. 6 (2016) 4206-4217.

151. T. Wang, M.S. Ide, M.R. Nolan, R.J. Davis, B.H. Shanks, “Renewable Production of Nylon-6,6 Monomers from Biomass-Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF),” Energy and Environment Focus 5 (2016) 13-17.

150. S. Mahamulkar, K. Yin, R.J. Davis, H. Shibata, A. Malek, P.K. Agrawal, C.W. Jones, “In-situ Generation of Radical Coke and the Role of Coke-Catalyst Contact on Coke Oxidation,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 55 (2016) 5271-5278.

149. Z.D. Young, S. Hanspal, R.J. Davis, “Aldol Condensation of Acetaldehyde over Titania, Hydroxyapatite and Magnesia,” ACS Catal. 6 (2016) 3193-3202.

148. D.D. Falcone, J.H. Hack, and R.J. Davis, “Aqueous-Phase Hydrogenation of Saturated and Unsaturated Ketones and Aldehydes over Supported Pt-Re Catalysts,” ChemCatChem 8 (2016) 1074-1083.

147. A.V.H. Soares, J.B. Salazar, D.D. Falcone, F.A. Vasconcellos, R.J. Davis and F.B. Passos, “A study of glycerol hydrogenolysis over Ru-Cu/Al2O3 and Ru-Cu/ZrO2 catalysts,” J. Mol. Cat. A: Chem. 415 (2016) 27-36.

146. A.A. Auer, S. Cap, M. Antonietti, S. Cherevko, X. Deng, G. Papakonstantinou, K. Sundmacher, S. Brüller, I. Antonyshyn, N. Dimitratos, R.J. Davis, K.-H.Böhm, N. Fechler, S. Freakley, Y. Grin, B.T. Gunnoe, H. Haj-Hariri, G. Hutchings, H. Liang, K.J.J. Mayrhofer, K. Müllen, F. Neese, C. Ranjan, M. Sankar, R. Schlögl, F. Schüth, I. Spanos, M. Stratmann, H. Tüysüz, T. Vidakovic-Koch, Y. Yi and G. Zangari, “MAXNET Energy – Focusing Research in Chemical Energy Conversion on the Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution,” Green 5 (2015) 7-21.

145. J. Xie, D.D. Falcone and R.J. Davis, “Restructuring of Supported PtSn Bimetallic Catalysts during Aqueous Phase Oxidation of 1,6-Hexanediol,” J. Catal. 332 (2015) 38-50.

144. J.A. Lopez-Ruiz, H. Pham, A. Datye, R.J. Davis, “Reactivity and Stability of Supported Pd Nanoparticles during the Liquid-Phase and Gas-Phase Decarbonylation of Heptanoic Acid” Appl. Catal. A: Gen., 504 (2015) 295-307.

143. D.D. Falcone, J.H. Hack, A.Yu. Klyushin, A. Knop-Gericke, R. Schlögl, and R.J. Davis, “Evidence for the Bifunctional Nature of Pt-Re Catalysts for Selective Polyol Hydrogenolysis,” ACS Catalysis 5 (2015) 5679-5695.

142. I.M. Hill, S. Hanspal, Z.D. Young, R.J. Davis, “DRIFTS of Probe Molecules Adsorbed on Magnesia, Zirconia and Hydroxyapatite Catalysts” J. Phys. Chem. C, 119 (2015) 9186-9197.

141. S. Hanspal, Z.D. Young, H. Shou, and R.J. Davis, "Multiproduct Steady-State Isotopic Transient Kinetic Analysis of the Ethanol Coupling Reaction over Hydroxyapatite and Magnesia," ACS Catalysis 5 (2015) 1737−1746.

140. S. Tolborg, A. Katerinopoulou, D.D. Falcone, I. Sádaba, C.M. Osmundsen, R.J. Davis, E. Taarning, P. Fristrup, and M.S. Holm, “Incorporation of Tin affects Crystallization, Morphology, and Crystal Composition of Sn-Beta,” J. Mater. Chem. A 2 (2014) 20252-20262.

139. H. Okatsu, M.R. Morrill, H. Shou, D.G. Barton, D. Ferrari, R.J. Davis, P.K. Agrawal, and C.W. Jones, “Supported K/MoS2 and K/Mo2C Catalysts for Higher Alcohol Synthesis from Synthesis Gas: Impact of Molybdenum Precursor and Metal Oxide Support on Activity and Selectivity,” Catal. Lett. 144 (2014) 825-830.

138. Q. Liu, J. Li, H. Liu, I. Tora, H. Liu, M.S. Ide, J. Lu, R.J. Davis, D.L. Green, and J.P. Landers, “Rapid, Cost-effective DNA Quantification via a Visually-detectable Aggregation of Superparamagnetic Silica-Magnetite Nanoparticles” Nano Research 7 (2014) 755-764.

137. J.B. Salazar, D.D. Falcone, H.N. Pham, A.K. Datye, F.B. Passos, and R.J. Davis, “Selective Production of 1,2-Propanediol by Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol over Bimetallic Ru-Cu Nanoparticles Supported on TiO2,” Applied Catal. A: Gen. 482 (2014) 137-144.

136. M.S. Ide and R.J. Davis, “The Important Role of Hydroxyl on Oxidation Catalysis by Gold Nanoparticles,” Acc. Chem. Res. 47 (2014) 825-833.

135. J.A. Lopez-Ruiz and R.J. Davis, “Decarbonylation of Heptanoic Acid over Carbon-Supported Platinum Nanoparticles,” Green Chem. 16 (2014) 683-694.

134. M.S. Ide, D.D. Falcone and R.J. Davis, “On the deactivation of supported platinum catalysts for selective oxidation of alcohols,” J. Catal. 311 (2014) 295-305.

133. S.E. Davis, A.D. Benavidez, R. W. Gosselink, J. H. Bitter, K.P. de Jong, A.K. Datye, and R.J. Davis, “Kinetics and Mechanism of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Oxidation and Their Implications for Catalyst Development,” J. Mol. Cat. A: Chem. 388-389 (2014) 123-132.

132. K. Yin, H. Shou, D. Ferrari, C.W. Jones, and R.J. Davis, “Influence of Cobalt on Rubidium-Promoted Alumina-Supported Molybdenum Carbide Catalysts for Higher Alcohol Synthesis from Syngas,” Top. Catal. 56 (2013) 1740-1751.

131. M.S. Ide and R.J. Davis, Perspectives on the Kinetics of Diol Oxidation over Supported Platinum Catalysts in Aqueous Solution,” J. Catal. 308 (2013) 50-59.

130. H. Shou and R.J. Davis, “Multi-Product Steady-State Isotopic Transient Kinetic Analysis of CO Hydrogenation over Supported Molybdenum Carbide,” J. Catal. 306 (2013) 91-99.

129. M. Morrill, N. Thao, H. Shou, R.J. Davis, D. Barton, D. Ferrari, P. Agrawal, and C. Jones, “Origins of Unusual Alcohol Selectivities over Mixed MgAl Oxide-Supported K/MoS2 Catalysts for Higher Alcohol Synthesis from Syngas,” ACS Catalysis 3 (2013) 1665-1675.

128. J.T. Kozlowski and R.J. Davis, “Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Guerbet Coupling of Alcohols,” ACS Catalysis 3 (2013) 1588-1600.

127. J.T. Kozlowski, M. Behrens, R. Schlögl, and R.J. Davis, “Influence of Precipitation Method on Acid-Base-Catalyzed Reactions over Mg-Zr Mixed Oxides,” Chem. Cat. Chem. 5 (2013) 1989-1997.

126. L. Li, M.R. Morrill, H. Shou, D.G. Barton, D. Ferrari, R.J. Davis, P.K. Agrawal, C.W. Jones, and D.S. Sholl, “On the Relationship Between Mo K Edge Energies and DFT Computed Partial Charges,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117 (2013) 2769-2773.

125. H. Shou, L. Li, D. Ferrari, D.S. Sholl, and R.J. Davis, “Use of Infrared Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory to Study the Influence of Rubidium on Alumina-supported Molybdenum Carbide Catalyst for Higher Alcohol Synthesis from Syngas,” J. Catal. 299 (2013) 150-161.

124. J.T. Kozlowski and R.J. Davis, “Sodium Modification of Zirconia Catalysts for Ethanol Coupling to 1-Butanol,” J. Energy Chemistry 22 (2013) 58-64.

123. T.W. Birky, J.T. Kozlowski and R.J. Davis, “Isotopic Transient Analysis of the Ethanol Coupling Reaction over Magnesia,” J. Catal. 298 (2013) 130-137.

122. S.E. Davis, M.S. Ide and R.J. Davis, “Selective Oxidation of Alcohols and Aldehydes over Supported Metal Nanoparticles,” Green Chem. 15 (2013) 17-45 (inside cover art).

121. H. Shou, D. Ferrari, D.G. Barton, C.W. Jones and R.J. Davis, “Influence of passivation on the reactivity of unpromoted and Rb-promoted Mo2C nanoparticles for CO hydrogenation,” ACS Catalysis 2 (2012) 1408-1416.

120. M.R. Morrill, N.T. Thao, P.K. Agrawal, C.W. Jones, R.J. Davis, Heng Shou, D.G. Bartona and D. Ferrari, “Mixed MgAl Oxide Supported Potassium Promoted Molybdenum Sulfide as a Selective Catalyst for Higher Alcohol Synthesis from Syngas,” Catal. Lett. 142 (2012) 875-881.

119. M.S. Ide, B. Hao, M. Neurock and R.J. Davis, “Mechanistic Insights on the Hydrogenation of a,b-unsaturated Ketones and Aldehydes to Unsaturated Alcohols over Metal Catalysts,” ACS Catalysis, 2 (2012) 671-683.

118. B.N. Zope, S.E. Davis and R.J. Davis, “Influence of Reaction Conditions on Diacid Formation during Au-catalyzed Oxidation of Glycerol and Hydroxymethylfurfural,” Topics in Catalysis, 55 (2012) 24-32.

117. S.E. Davis, B.N. Zope and R.J. Davis, “On the mechanism of selective oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid over supported Pt and Au catalysts,” Green Chem. 14 (2012) 143-147.

116. B.N. Zope and R.J. Davis, “Inhibition of Gold and Platinum Catalysts by Reactive Intermediates Produced in the Selective Oxidation of Alcohols in Liquid Water,” Green Chem. 13 (2011) 3484-3491.

115. M. Chia, Y.J. Pagán-Torres, D. Hibbitts, Q. Tan, H.N. Pham, A.K. Datye, M. Neurock, R.J. Davis, and J.A. Dumesic, “Selective hydrogenolysis of polyols and cyclic ethers over bifunctional surface sites on rhodium-rhenium catalysts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133 (2011) 12675-12689.

114. H. Shou and R.J. Davis, “Reactivity and In-situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Rb-promoted Mo2C/MgO Catalysts for Higher Alcohol Synthesis,” J. Catal. 282 (2011) 83-93.

113. Y. Xi and R.J. Davis, “Nanocrystalline MgO Catalysts for the Henry Reaction of Benzaldehyde and Nitromethane,” J. Mol. Cat. A: Chem. 341 (2011) 22-27.

112. S.E. Davis, L.R. Houk, E.C. Tamargo, A.K. Datye, and R.J. Davis, “Oxidation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural over Supported Pt, Pd and Au Catalysts,” Catalysis Today, 160 (2011) 55-60.

111. B.N. Zope, D.D. Hibbitts, M. Neurock and R.J. Davis, “Reactivity of the Gold-Water Interface during Selective Oxidation Catalysis” Science 330 (2010) 74-78.

110. Y. Xi and R.J. Davis, “Glycerol Intercalated Mg-Al Hydrotalcite as a Potential Solid Base Catalyst for Transesterification” Clays and Clay Minerals 58 (2010) 475-485.

109. O.M. Daniel, A. DeLaRiva, E.L. Kunkes, A.K. Datye, J.A. Dumesic and R.J. Davis, “X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Bimetallic PtRe Catalysts for Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol to Propanediols” ChemCatChem 2 (2010) 1107-1114.

108. M.R. Gogate and R.J. Davis, “Hydrogenation of CO2 over supported Rh-Fe catalysts ,” Catal. Commun. 11 (2010) 901-906.

107. Y. Xi and R.J. Davis, “Intercalation of Ethylene Glycol into Yttrium Hydroxide Layered Materials” Inorg. Chem. 49 (2010) 3888-3895.

106. J.T. Kozlowski, M.T. Aronson and Robert Davis, “Transesterification of tributyrin with methanol over basic Mg:Zr mixed oxide catalysts” Appl. Catal. B: Environ., 96 (2010) 508-515.

105. S. Jain, K. Venkatasubbaiah, C.W. Jones and R.J. Davis “Factors Influencing Recyclability of Co(III)-Salen Catalysts in the Hydrolytic Kinetic Resolution of Epichlorohydrin” J. Mol. Cat. A: Chem. 316 (2010) 8-15.

104. Y. Xi and R.J. Davis, “Influence of Textural Properties and Trace Water on the Reactivity and Deactivation of Reconstructed Layered Hydroxide Catalysts for Transesterification of Tributyrin with Methanol” J. Catal., 268 (2009) 307-317.

103. M.R. Gogate and R.J. Davis, “X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Fe-Promoted Rh/TiO2 Catalyst for Synthesis of Ethanol from Synthesis Gas” ChemCatChem, 1 (2009) 295-303.

102. S. Jain, X. Zheng, K. Venkatasubbaiah, C.W. Jones, M. Weck, and R.J. Davis, “Investigation of Deactivation of Co-Salen Catalysts in the Hydrolytic Kinetic Resolution of Epichlorohydrin”, in Catalysis of Organic Reactions, M.L. Prunier, Ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, (2009) 389-398.

101. M.T. Aronson, R.W. Deitcher, Y. Xi, and R.J. Davis, “New Laboratory Course for Senior-Level Chemical Engineering Students” Chemical Engineering Education, 43 (2009) 104-112.

100. B.N. Zope and R.J. Davis, “Influence of Reactor Configuration on the Selective Oxidation of Glycerol over Au/TiO2” Topics in Catalysis, 52 (2009) 269-277.

99. M.A. Haider, M.R. Gogate and R.J. Davis, “Fe-Promotion of Supported Rh Catalysts for Direct Conversion of Syngas to Ethanol” J. Catal. 261 (2009) 9-16.

98. Y. Xi and R.J. Davis, “Influence of Water on the Activity and Stability of Activated Mg-Al Hydrotalcites for the Transesterification of Tributyrin with Methanol” J. Catal. 254 (2008) 190-197.

97. T.G. Glover, K.I. Dunne, R.J. Davis and M.D. LeVan, “Carbon-Silica Composite Adsorbent: Characterization and Adsorption of Light Gases,” Micropor. Mesopor. Mater., 111 (2008) 1-11.

96. E.P. Maris, W.C. Ketchie, M. Murayama and R.J. Davis, “Glycerol Hydrogenolysis on Carbon-Supported PtRu and AuRu Bimetallic Catalysts,” J. Catal. 251 (2007) 281-294.

95. S. Jain, X. Zheng, C.W. Jones, M. Weck, and R.J. Davis, “Importance of Counterion Reactivity on the Deactivation of Co-Salen Catalysts in the Hydrolytic Kinetic Resolution of Epichlorohydrin,” Inorg. Chem. 46 (2007) 8887-8896.

94. M.C. Kung, R.J. Davis and H.H. Kung, “Understanding Au-Catalyzed Low Temperature CO Oxidation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111 (2007) 11767-11775.

93. W.C. Ketchie, M. Murayama and R.J. Davis, “Selective Oxidation of Glycerol over Carbon-Supported AuPd Catalysts,” J. Catal. 250 (2007) 264-273.

92. W.C. Ketchie, Y.-L. Fang, M.S. Wong, M. Murayama and R.J. Davis, “Influence of Gold Particle Size on the Aqueous-phase Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide and Glycerol,” J. Catal. 250 (2007) 94-101.

91. E.P. Maris and R.J. Davis, “Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol over Carbon-Supported Ru and Pt Catalysts,” J. Catal. 249 (2007) 328-337.

90. W.C. Ketchie, E.P. Maris and R.J. Davis, “In-situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Supported Ru Catalysts in the Aqueous Phase,” Chem. Mater. 19 (2007) 3406-3411.

89. W.C. Ketchie, M. Murayama and R.J. Davis, "Promotional Effect of Hydroxyl on the Aqueous Phase Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide and Glycerol over Supported Au Catalysts," Topics in Catal. 44 (2007) 307-317.

88. D.G. Lahr, J. Li and R.J. Davis, "Oxidation of H2 and CO over Ion Exchanged X and Y Zeolites," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 (2007) 3420-3425.

87. J. Tai and R.J. Davis," Synthesis of Methacrylic Acid by Aldol Condensation of Propionic Acid with Formaldehyde over Acid-Base Bifunctional Catalysts," Catal. Today 123 (2007) 42-49.

86. M.J. Janik, R.J. Davis and M. Neurock, "A Density Functional Theory Study of the Alkylation of Isobutane with Butene over Phosphotungstic Acid," J. Catal. 244 (2006) 65-77.

85. J.T. Calla and R.J. Davis, "Oxygen Exchange Reactions during CO Oxidation over Titania- and Alumina-Supported Au Nanoparticles," J. Catal. 241 (2006) 407-416.

84. M.J. Janik, R.J. Davis and M. Neurock, "A Quantum Chemical Study of Tertiary Carbenium-Ions in Acid Catalyzed Hydrocarbon Conversions over Phosphotungstic Acid," Catal. Today 116 (2006) 90-98.

83. J. Li, J. Tai and R.J. Davis, "Hydrocarbon Oxidation and Aldol Condensation over Basic Zeolite Catalysts," Catal. Today 116 (2006) 226-233.

82. E.P. Maris, W.C. Ketchie, V. Oleshko and R.J. Davis, "Metal Particle Growth During Glucose Hydrogenation over Ru/SiO2 Evaluated by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006) 7869-7876.

81. J.T. Calla, M.T. Bore, A.K. Datye and R.J. Davis, "Effect of Alumina and Titania on the Oxidation of CO over Au Nanoparticles Evaluated by 13C Isotopic Transient Analysis," J. Catal. 238 (2006) 458-467.

80. M.J. Janik, B.B. Bardin, R.J. Davis and M. Neurock, "A Quantum Chemical Study of the Decomposition of Keggin-Structured Heteropolyacids, " J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006) 4170-4178.

79. J. Yang, M.J. Janik, A. Zheng, M. Zhang, M. Neurock, R.J. Davis, C. Ye and F. Deng, "Location, Acid Strength and Mobility of the Acidic Protons in Keggin 12-H3PW12O40: A Combined Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy and DFT Quantum Chemical Calculation Study," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 (2005) 18274-18280.

78. Y. Ji, S. Jain and R.J. Davis, "Investigation of Pd Leaching from Supported Pd Catalysts during the Heck Reaction," J. Phys. Chem. B 109 (2005) 17232-17238.

77. W.J. Sommer, K. Yu, J.S. Sears, Y. Ji, X. Zheng, R.J. Davis, C.D. Sherrill, C.W. Jones and M. Weck, "Investigations into the Stability of Immobilized PdII Pincer Complexes During Heck Catalysis," Organometal. 24 (2005) 4351-4361.

76. M.J. Janik, R.J. Davis and M. Neurock,"The Relationship between Adsorption and Solid Acidity of Heteropolyacids," Catal. Today 105 (2005) 134-143.

75. J.T. Calla and R.J. Davis, "The Influence of Dihydrogen and Water Vapor on the Kinetics of CO Oxidation over Au/Al2O3," I&EC Res. 44 (2005) 5403-5410.

74. K. Campbell, M.J. Janik, R.J. Davis and M. Neurock, "Ab Initio and Microcalorimetric Investigations of Alkene Adsorption on Phosphotungstic Acid," Langmuir 21 (2005) 4738-4745.

73. J. Li and R.J. Davis, "Raman Spectroscopy and Dioxygen Adsorption on Cs-loaded Zeolite Catalysts for Butene Isomerization," J. Phys. Chem. B 109 (2005) 7141-7148.

72. M.J. Janik, R.J. Davis, and M. Neurock, "Anhydrous and water-assisted proton mobility in phosphotungstic acid," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 (2005) 5238-5245.

71. J.T. Calla and R.J. Davis, "Investigation of Alumina-supported Au Catalyst for CO Oxidation by Isotopic Transient Analysis and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 109 (2005) 2307-2314.

70. J.T. Calla and R.J. Davis, "X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and CO Oxidation Activity of Au/Al2O3 Treated with NaCN," Catal. Lett. 99 (2005) 21-26.

69. M.J. Janik, R.J. Davis and M. Neurock, "A first principles analysis of the location and affinity of protons in the secondary structure of phosphotungstic acid," J. Phys. Chem. B 108 (2004) 12292-12300.

68. J. Tai, Q. Ge, R.J. Davis, and M. Neurock, "Adsorption of CO2 on Model Surfaces of Cesium Oxides Determined from First Principles," J. Phys. Chem. B 108 (2004) 16798-16805.

67. S.E. Siporin, R.J. Davis, "Use of Kinetic Models to Explore the Role of Base Promoters on Ru/MgO Ammonia Synthesis Catalysts," J. Catal. 225 (2004) 359-368.

66. S.E. Siporin, R.J. Davis, W. Raróg-Pilecka, D. Szmigiel, and Z. Kowalczyk, "Isotopic Transient Analysis of Ammonia Synthesis over Ba or Cs-Promoted Ru/Carbon Catalysts" Catal. Lett. 93 (2004) 61-65.

65. R.J. Davis, "Basic Nanostructured Catalysts" in Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, J.A. Schwarz, C.I. Contescu, K. Putyera, Eds., Marcel Dekker, New York (2004) 225-234.

64. S.E. Siporin and R.J. Davis "Isotopic Transient Analysis of Ammonia Synthesis over Ru/MgO Catalysts Promoted by Cesium, Barium or Lanthanum," J. Catal. 222 (2004) 315-322.

63. M.J. Janik, K.A. Campbell, B.B. Bardin, R.J. Davis, and M. Neurock, “A Computational and Experimental Study of Anhydrous Phosphotungstic Acid and its Interaction with Water Molecules,” Applied Catalysis A: General 256 (2003) 51-68.

62. R.J. Davis, "Bases and Base Catalysis" in Encyclopedia of Catalysis, I.T. Horvath, Ed., Wiley: New York, (2003).

61. R.J. Davis, "All Glitters Is Not Au0," (Perspective) Science 301 (2003) 926-927 (invited).

60. S.E. Siporin, B.C. McClaine and R.J. Davis, "Adsorption of N2 and CO2 on Zeolite X Exchanged with Potassium, Barium, or Lanthanum," Langmuir 19 (2003) 4707-4713.

59. C.J. Dillon, J.H. Holles, R.J. Davis, J.A. Labinger and M.E. Davis, "A Substrate-Versatile Catalyst for the Selective Oxidation of Light Alkanes: II. Catalyst Characterization," J. Catal. 218 (2003) 54-66.

58. R.J. Davis, "New Perspectives on Basic Zeolites as Catalysts and Catalyst Supports," J. Catal. 216 (2003) 396-405 (invited).

57. J. Li and R.J. Davis, "On the Use of 1-Butene Double Bond Isomerization as a Probe Reaction for Cesium-loaded Zeolite X," Appl. Catal. A. 239 (2003) 59-70.

56. B.C. McClaine and R.J. Davis, " Importance of Product Readsorption during Isotopic Transient Analysis of Ammonia Synthesis on Ba-Promoted Ru/BaX Catalyst," J. Catal. 211 (2002) 379-386.

55. S.E. Siporin, B.C. McClaine, S.L. Anderson and R.J. Davis, "Lanthanum Promotion of Ru/Zeolite X Catalysts for Ammonia Synthesis," Catal. Lett. 81 (2002) 265-269.

54. B.C. McClaine and R.J. Davis, "Isotopic Transient Kinetic Analysis of Cs-Promoted Ru/MgO during Ammonia Synthesis," J. Catal. 210 (2002) 387-396.

53. B.C. McClaine, S.E. Siporin and R.J. Davis, "X-ray and IR Spectroscopy of Barium-Promoted, Zeolite-Supported Ruthenium Catalysts for Ammonia Synthesis," J. Phys. Chem. B 105 (2001) 7525-7532.

52. M. Tu and R.J. Davis,"Cyclo-addition of CO2 to Epoxides over Solid Base Catalysts," J. Catal. 199 (2001) 85-91.

51. E.J. Doskocil, S.V. Bordawekar and R.J. Davis, “Catalysis by Solid Bases,” in Catalysis, Vol. 15, The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, (2000) 40-72.

50. J.H. Holles and R.J. Davis, "Structure of Pd/CeOx/Al2O3 Catalysts for NOx Reduction Determined by In Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, J. Phys. Chem. B, 104 (2000) 9653-9660.

49. J.H. Holles, R.J. Davis, T.M. Murray and J.M. Howe, "Effects of Pd Particle Size and Ceria Loading on NO Reduction with CO," J. Catal. 195 (2000) 193-206.

48. B.C. McClain, T. Becue, C. Lock and R.J. Davis, "Kinetic Analysis of Ammonia Synthesis Catalyzed by Barium-Promoted Ruthenium Supported on Zeolite X," J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem. 163 (2000) 105-116.

47. B.B. Bardin and R.J. Davis, “Effect of Water on Silica-Supported Phosphotungstic Acid Catalysts for 1-Butene Double Bond Shift and Alkane Skeletal Isomerization,” Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 200 (2000) 219-231.

46. R.J. Davis, E.J. Doskocil and S. Bordawekar, “Structure/Function Relationships for Basic Zeolite Catalysts Containing Occluded Alkali Species,” Catal. Today 62 (2000) 241-247.

45. B.B. Bardin, R.J. Davis and M. Neurock, “Ammonia Adsorption on Keggin-type Heteropolyacid Catalysts Explored by Density Functional Quantum Chemistry Calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104 (2000) 3556-3562.

44. R.J. Davis, "Relationships between Basicity and Reactivity of Zeolite Catalysts," Res. Chem. Intermed. 26 (2000) 21-27.

43. J.H. Holles, M.A. Switzer, and R.J. Davis, “Influence of Ceria and Lanthana Promoters on the Kinetics of NO and N2O Reduction by CO over Alumina Supported Palladium and Rhodium,” J. Catal. 190 (2000) 247-260.

42. S.V. Bordawekar and R.J. Davis, “Probing the Basic Character of Alkali-Modified Zeolites by CO2 Adsorption Microcalorimetry, Butene Isomerization and Toluene Alkylation with Ethylene,” J. Catal. 189 (2000) 79-90.

41 E.J. Doskocil and R.J. Davis, “Spectroscopic Characterization and Catalytic Activity of Zeolite X Containing Occluded Alkali Species,” J. Catal. 188 (1999) 353-364.

40. T. Bécue, J.-M. Manoli, C. Potvin, R.J. Davis and G. Djéga-Mariadassou, "Preparation, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity of Molybdenum Carbide or Nitride Supported on Platinum Clusters Dispersed in EMT Zeolite," J. Catal. 186 (1999) 110-122.

39. B.B. Bardin and R.J. Davis, “Characterization of Copper and Vanadium Containing Heteropolyacid Catalysts for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane,” Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 185 (1999) 283-292.

38. E.J. Doskocil, S.V. Bordawekar, B.G. Kaye and R.J. Davis, “UV-Vis Spectroscopy of Iodine Adsorbed on Alkali-Modified Zeolite Catalysts for Addition of Carbon Dioxide to Ethylene Oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103 (1999) 6277-6282.

37. B.B. Bardin, S.V. Bordawekar, M. Neurock and R.J. Davis, "Acidity of Keggin- Type Heteropolycompounds Evaluated by Catalytic Probe Reactions, Sorption Microcalorimetry and Density Functional Quantum Chemical Calculations," J. Phys. Chem. B 102 (1998) 10817-10825.

36. T. Becue, R.J. Davis and J.M. Garces, "Effect of Cationic Promoters on the Kinetics of Ammonia Synthesis Catalyzed by Ruthenium Supported on Zeolite X," J. Catal. 179 (1998) 129-137.

35. B.B. Bardin and R.J. Davis, "A Comparison of Cesium-Containing Heteropolyacid and Sulfated Zirconia Catalysts For Isomerization of Light Alkanes," Topics in Catal. 6 (1998) 77-86 (invited).

34. V.F. Stone and R.J. Davis, "Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of Titania and Niobia Mesoporous Molecular Sieves," Chem. Mater. 10 (1998) 1468-1474.

33. S.V. Bordawekar, E.J. Doskocil and R.J. Davis, "Microcalorimetric Study of CO2 and NH3 Adsorption on Rb and Sr Modified Catalyst Supports," Langmuir 14 (1998) 1734-1738.

32. W.S. Wieland, R.J. Davis and J.M. Garces, "Side-Chain Alkylation of Toluene with Methanol over Alkali-Exchanged Zeolites X, Y, L and Beta," J. Catal. 173 (1998) 490-500.

31. R.J. Davis and Z. Liu, "Titania-Silica: A Model Binary Oxide Catalyst System," Chem. Mater. 9 (1997) 2311-2324.

30. E.J. Doskocil, S.V. Bordawekar and R.J. Davis, "Alkali-Support Interactions on Rubidium Base Catalysts Determined by XANES, EXAFS, CO2 Adsorption and IR Spectroscopy," J. Catal. 169 (1997) 327-337.

29. S.V. Bordawekar, E.J. Doskocil and R.J. Davis, "Influence of Support Composition on the Structure and Reactivity of Strontium Base Catalysts," Catal. Lett. 44 (1997) 193-199.

28. J.E. Tabora and R.J. Davis, "On the Superacidity of Sulfated Zirconia Catalysts for Low Temperature Isomerization of Butane," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118 (1996) 12240-12241.

27. W.S. Wieland, R.J. Davis, and J.M. Garces, "Solid Base Catalysts for Side-Chain Alkylation of Toluene with Methanol," Catal. Today 28 (1996) 443-450.

26. C.T. Fishel, R.J. Davis, and J.M. Garces, "Ammonia Synthesis Catalyzed by Ruthenium Clusters Supported on Basic Zeolites," J. Catal. 163 (1996) 148-157.

25. J.E. Tabora and R.J. Davis, "The Role of Transition Metal Promoters on Sulfated Zirconia Catalysts for Low Temperature Butane Isomerization," J. Catal. 162 (1996) 125-133.

24. Z. Liu, G.M. Crumbaugh, and R.J. Davis, "Effect of Structure and Composition on Epoxidation of Hexene Catalyzed by Microporous and Mesoporous Ti-Si Mixed Oxides," J. Catal. 159 (1996) 83-89.

23. C.T. Fishel, R.J. Davis, and J.M. Garces, "A Novel Basic Alkaline Earth Zeolite- Supported Ruthenium Catalyst for Ammonia Synthesis," Chem. Commun. (1996) 649-650.

22. R.J. Davis, Z. Liu, J.E. Tabora, and W.S. Wieland,"X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Ti-Containing Molecular Sieves ETS-10, Aluminum-Free Ti-b, and TS-1," Catal. Lett. 34 (1995) 101-113.

21. J. Tabora and R.J. Davis, "Structure of Fe, Mn-Promoted Sulfated Zirconia Catalyst by X-ray and IR Absorption Spectroscopies," J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 91 (1995) 1825-1833.

20. Z. Liu, J. Tabora, and R.J. Davis, "Relationships Between Microstructure and Surface Acidity of Ti-Si Mixed Oxide Catalysts," J. Catal. 149 (1994) 117- 126.

19. R.J. Davis and M. Boudart, "Structure of Supported PdAu Clusters Determined by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. 98 (1994) 5471-5477.

18. C.T. Fishel and R.J. Davis, "Use of Catalytic Reactions to Probe Mg-Al Mixed Oxide Surfaces," Catal. Lett. 25 (1994) 87-95.

17. C.T. Fishel and R.J. Davis, "Characterization of Mg-Al Mixed Oxides By Temperature-Programmed Reaction of 2-Propanol," Langmuir 10 (1994) 159-165.

16. Z. Liu and R.J. Davis, "Investigation of the Structure of Microporous Ti-Si Mixed Oxides by X-ray, UV Reflectance, FT-Raman, and FT-IR Spectroscopies," J. Phys. Chem. 98 (1994) 1253-1261.

15. R.J. Davis, J.L. Gainer, G. O'Neal, and I.-W. Wu, "Photocatalytic Decolorization of Wastewater Dyes," Water Environ. Res. 66 (1994) 50-53.

14. R.J. Davis, "Aromatization on Zeolite L - Supported Pt Clusters," Het. Chem. Rev. 1 (1994) 41-53.

13. R.J. Davis and E. Mielczarski, "Effect of Catalyst Preparation on the Aromatization of n-Hexane over Pt Clusters Supported on Hydrotalcite," in Selectivity in Catalysis, eds. M.E. Davis and S.L. Suib, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C. (1993) 327-336.

12. E.G. Derouane, V. Jullien-Lardot, R.J. Davis, N. Blom, and P.E. Hojlund-Nielsen, "Aromatization of n-Hexane by Aluminum-Stabilized Magnesium Oxide-Supported Noble-Metal Catalysts," Stud. Surf. Sci. & Catal. 75 (1993) 1031-1042.

11. A.L. McKenzie, C.T. Fishel, and R.J. Davis, "Investigation of the Surface Structure and Basic Properties of Calcined Hydrotalcites," J. Catal. 138 (1992) 547-561.

10. R.J. Davis, "Synthesis and Characterization of VPI-5 Supported TiO2 Clusters," Chem. Mater. 4 (1992) 1410-1415.

9. E. Mielczarski, S.B. Hong, R.J. Davis, and M.E. Davis, "Aromatization of n- Hexane by Platinum Containing Molecular Sieves II. n-Hexane Reactivity," J. Catal. 134 (1992) 359-369.

8. R.J. Davis and M. Boudart, "Uses of Synchrotron Radiation in Heterogeneous Catalysis," in Proceedings of the Symposium on Application of Synchrotron Radiation, August 17-19 (1989) Pohang Institute of Science, POSTECH, Korea (1991) 291-336.

7. R.J. Davis and M. Boudart, "Hydrogenation of Alkenes on Supported PdAu Clusters," in Catalytic Science and Technology, Vol. 1: Proceedings of the First Tokyo Conference on Advanced Catalytic Science and Technology, Tokyo, July 1-5 (1990) eds. S. Yoshida, N. Takezawa, and T. Ono, Kodansha, Weinheim:VCH, 1991, 129-134.

6. R.J. Davis and E.G. Derouane, "Aromatization of n-Hexane by Pt Clusters Supported on High Surface Area MgO," J. Catal. 132 (1991) 269-274.

5. R.J. Davis and E.G. Derouane, "A Non-porous Supported Platinum Catalyst for Aromatization of n-Hexane," Nature 349 (1991) 313-315.

4. R.J. Davis, S.M. Landry, J.A. Horsley, and M. Boudart, "X-ray Absorption Study of the Interaction of Hydrogen with Clusters of Supported Palladium," Phys. Rev. B 39 (1989) 10580-10583.

3. R.J. Davis, J.A. Rossin, and M.E. Davis, "Hydroformylation by Rhodium Zeolite A Catalysts," J. Catal. 98 (1986) 477-486.

2. B.E. Hanson, G.W. Wagner, R.J. Davis, and E. Motell, "Nature of ?-Alumina Supported Molybdenum Subcarbonyls as Determined by Cross Polarization-Magic Angle Spinning 13C NMR Spectroscopy," Inorg. Chem. 23 (1984) 1635-1636.

1. B.E. Hanson, M.J. Sullivan, and R.J. Davis, "Direct Evidence for Bridge-Terminal Carbonyl Exchange in Solid Dicobalt Octacarbonyl by Variable Temperature Magic Angle Spinning 13C NMR Spectroscopy," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 106 (1984) 251-253.