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Yang, T. L., Dixon, M. W., & Proffitt, D. R. (1999). Seeing big things: Overestimation of heights is greater for real objects than for objects in pictures. Perception. 28, 445-467.

In six experiments we demonstrate that the vertical-horizontal illusion that is evoked when viewing photographs and line-drawings is relatively small, whereas the magnitude of this illusion when large objects are viewed is at least twice as great. Furthermore, we show that the illusion is due more to vertical overestimation that horizontal underestimation. The lack of a difference in vertical overestimation between pictures and line drawings suggests that vertical overestimation in pictures depends solely on the perceived physical size of the projection on the picture surface, rather than on what is apparent about an object's represented size. The vertical-horizontal illusion is influenced by perceived physical size. It is greater when viewing large objects than small pictures of these same objects, even when visual angles are equated.

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