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Creem, S. H., & Proffitt, D. R. (1999). Separate memories for visual guidance and explicit awareness: The roles of time and place. Challis, Bradford H. (Ed), Velichkovsky, Boris M. (Ed), et al. (1999). Stratification in cognition and consciousness. Advances in consciousness research. (pp. 73-104). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company. viii, 293 pp.

Illustrates the roles of time and place in memory for visual guidance and explicit awareness. The topics discussed include stratification in perception and memory (perceptual awareness and visual guidance, frames of reference, a role for time and place) and memory for action and awareness (2 memories for geographical slant, memorial judgments given in the presence of the hill, memorial judgments given away from the hill, geographical slant conclusions). The work involving judgments of geographical slant shows that visual guidance memory for hills lasts for at least 2 mins, longer than found in research on pointing or saccades. For judgments of the incline of hills, the response is tied to the location in which the hill was perceived. The author's findings suggests that memories for visual guidance and explicit awareness are dissociated in the short term within the presence of the stimulus. However, with the addition of longer time delays, or by removing the observer from the surroundings, communication between conscious awareness and visual guidance is necessary. Visual guidance memory is not preserved in these cases, and the authors found that actions are thus informed by the explicit visual representation stored in memory.

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