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Dixon, M. W. & Proffitt, D. R. (2002). Overestimation of heights in virtual reality is influenced more by perceived distal size than by the 2-D versus 3-D dimensionality of the display. Perception, 31, 103-112.

One important aspect of the pictorial representation of a scene is the depiction of object proportions. Yang, Dixon, and Proffitt (1999 Perception 28 445-467) recently reported that the magnitude of the vertical-horizontal illusion was greater for vertical extents presented in three-dimensional (3-D) environments were large and all of the 2-D displays were small, the question remains whether the observed magnitude differences were due solely to the dimensionality of the displays (2-D versus 3-D) or to the perceived distal size of the extents (small versus large). We investigated this question by comparing observers judgments of vertical relative to horizontal extents on a large but 2-D display compared to the large 3-D and the small 2-D displays used by Yang et al (1999). The results confirmed that the magnitiude differences for vertical overestimation between display media are influenced more by the perceived distal object size rather than by the dimensionality of the display.

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