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Proffitt, D. R., Bhalla, M., Gossweiler, R., & Midgett, J. (1995). Perceiving geographical slant. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2(4), 409-428.

Conducted 5 experiments with 610 undergraduates to examine Ss' judgment of the inclination of hills viewed either out-of-doors or in a computer-simulated virtual environment. Angle judgments were obtained by having Ss (1) provide verbal estimates, (2) adjust a representation of the hill's cross-section, and (3) adjust a tilt board with their unseen hand. Geographical slant was greatly overestimated according to the 1st 2 measures, but not the 3rd. It is proposed that the perceived exaggeration of geographical slant preserves the relationship between distal inclination and people's behavioral potential. Apparent slant increased with fatigue. Visually guided actions were accommodated to the actual distal properties of the environment; consequently, the tilt board adjustments did not reflect apparent slant overestimations, nor were they influenced by fatigue. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved)

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