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Witt, J. K., Proffitt, D. R., & Epstein, W. (2010). When and how are spatial perceptions scaled? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 36(5), 1153-1160. doi: 10.1037/a0019947.

This research was designed to test the predictions of 2 approaches to perception. By most traditional accounts, people are thought to derive general-purpose spatial perceptions that are scaled in arbitrary, unspecified units. In contrast, action-specific approaches propose that the angular information inherent in optic flow and ocular-motor adjustments is rescaled and transformed into units related to intended actions. A number of studies have shown, for example, that the apparent distance to targets is scaled by the effort required to walk the extent. Such studies can be accommodated by the traditional account by asserting that the experimental manipulations of walking effort influenced not perception itself, but rather postperceptual response processes. The current studies were designed to assess when and how action-specific influences on distance perception have their effects. The results supported the action-specific account. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

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