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Description of the Apparatus

Six crystals at a time can be positioned in the box after they have been carefully prepared, i.e., polished, wrapped in three layers of teflon and one layer of aluminized mylar with black paper on the front face, and PMT glued (figure gif). A temperature sensor is also installed in the box, and for every event during the data taking process, the temperature and the absolute time are also read out.

Figure: Positions of crystals in the tomography apparatus.

Once the modules have been positioned, and their identities, positions and orientations recorded, the box is closed and light proof. The apparatus is operated in a climatized room with controlled humidity. The crystal PMT's and the drift chambers are then brought under their operational voltages for a day or so before the data taking. The operational voltages of the PMT's are determined by requiring that the minimum ionizing peaks fall in the same channels. For the drift chambers, positive high voltages of 2200-2400 Volts are applied to the anode wires with the cathode wires grounded. These drift chambers were built at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and were previously used in other experiments [Ate-81], [Mor-82], [Ran-81] and [Ran-82]. Each chamber has two signal planes and three ground planes on each side and in-between the signal planes which consist of two orthogonal sets of alternating anode and cathode wires. The anode-cathode separation is 0.4064 cm. The cathode wires are alternately attached to two bus lines, thereby making an odd (O) and an even (E) bus lines. The anode wires are soldered onto a delay line of 2.0 ns per wire spacing, i.e., a total of 144 ns for each anode line containing 73 wires. A gas mixture of argon, isobutane and isopropyl is supplied to the chambers. The gas pressure in the chambers is kept constant over time via a bubbler with 3 mm low vapor pressure oil.

The signals --- from the two ends of the anode delay lines, and for instance --- produced by a charged particle going through a chamber are sent via a splitter box (figure gif) to a preamplifier for double stage amplification. The signals are then fed through a DC filter to a constant fraction discriminator whose output (30 ns wide) are sent to scalers and used for TDC stops. The signals from the odd (O) and even (E) cathodes are added and subtracted electronically by a dual cathode O/E amplifier (figure gif) which generates two outputs: O+E and O-E. The polarity (or sign) of the O-E signal indicates the side of the anode wire on which the charged particle has passed since the closest cathode wire has the largest pulse. The offset and the gain of the O/E amplifiers are set

to produce offset and a maximum gain of 500 mV; as a result, the most positive signals saturate at zero volt.

Figure: The electronic diagram of the drift chamber read out.

The O-E signals are sent to an ADC with integration time of 100 ns.


The O+E signals are fed to TDC's with the master trigger as a veto since the TDC must receive a stop only for good events. The master trigger itself is a triple coincidence between the two scintillator counters and the ``OR'' of the CsI modules in the box as shown in figure 8.11, or a double coincidence of the two scintillators alone, in which case the data are used for the calibration of the drift chambers.

next up previous contents
Next: Data Acquisition and Up: Cosmic Ray Tomography Previous: Cosmic Ray Tomography

Bernward Krause
Mon Jan 15 14:57:06 MET 1996