Day 22 - Wednesday
1) Class Business (5)
- * Sign-in Sheet
- * Discuss Assignment for Friday 10/19
2) Issues/ Discussion/ Points (20)
I. Weve talked, several times, about the parts of argument.
Today I want us to start thinking about where we can locate these
parts in our papers.
D) Key Terms should come at the end of the issue (in the launching
point, to anticipate discussion).
A) Definition: the opening part of a unit of discourse (essay,
section, paragraph) that readers use to create a framework of
expectations; controls readers sense of coherence.
B) An issue does/ should do/ should tell us three things:
1) Characters (who?)
2) Key Concepts (what?)
3) Whats at stake?
C) Sound Familiar? What is the issue of an essay?
1) The introduction is the "global issue" of your paper.
2) But, your paper has other "issues."
a) beginning of a section (several paragraphs on one concept)
b) beginning of a paragraph
c) these can be 2-3 sentence issues, or the traditional "topic
3) Every larger unit of discourse is composed of smaller units.
Each level has an issue which informs readers of the characters/
themes of that level (and how they relate to the next highest
A) Definition: segment of text that explains, describes, illustrates,
contradicts, or otherwise develops the matters announced in the issue;
explores/ discusses the key concepts and characters introduced in
B) Issue and Discussion are in fixed positions.
1) Issue controls coherence whether you realize/ intend it
2) Use strategically.
C) If the introduction is the global issue, what is the global
discussion? (Body, but sections and paragraphs also have discussions.)
A) In the introduction, or global issue, what is our main point?
(Claim) And where do we put this claim? (end of the issue/ launching
point) This is our global point/ claim.
B) Definition: a point is the most important idea or claim in
a unit of discourse; it helps readers create coherence by showing
all elements of a text subject to some point.
C) Where do we put our points? (Essay, Section, Paragraph)
1) Issue = Point; 1-sentence, prototypical topic sentence paragraphs
2) Multi-sentence Issue with Point in the Launching Point
3) Issue/ Discussion/ Point ( point as last sentence)
4) Point First and Point Last
* Point first helps readers deal with unfamiliar or difficult
content; point first also better if readers are unwilling to read.
Point first and last clearest, but most redundant.
D) Can you place the global point at the end of the discussion
(body of the essay)?
1) Yes, if the launching point promises to reward the reader
for the attention youre demanding.
2) Yes, if the launching point establishes rich thematic strings that
will lead the reader to the global point.
E) Illustrate for Essay/ Paragraph Distribute LRS Diagram
F) How do we signal a point? (Brainstorm on board.)
1) The point is
2) In short
3) Most significantly
3) Parts of Argument Placement Game (10)
* Each team should select a representative to head to the board
and follow the teams directions.
* Divide class into 3 teams of 5.
* Draw three versions of the Issues/ Discussions Essay Diagram on the board.
List parts of an argument (C, R1, E1, R2, E2, R3, E3, WC, WR1, WR3, A&R-C,
* Teams help their representative match the parts to places they might
occur in a well-formed text (and in terms of I/D placement).
* Discuss choices.
4) Discuss Sample Claim and Reason Paragraphs (15)
* Distribute Locating Reasons in Our Paragraphs handout. (Use
to emphasize the importance of placing your reasons with an eye to
your readers sense of coherence.)
* Have students read the claim/ issue and the five discussion paragraphs
that follow. Each paragraph develops the same reason in support of this
claim. Rank the paragraphs in order from most coherent to least coherent,
then locate the reason in each.
* Discuss. Which paragraphs are most effective? Where is the reason/ point
located in each of the paragraphs? Which of these locations makes the paragraph
1) Options: R-1st, R-last, R-1st and last, R-middle,
6) Begin Discussion of "Show Dog" (5)
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