Notes (in Outline Form) on the Clean Water Act

From Class of Wednesday, January 20


Cross-cutting issues:


Policy goals

Policy tools

Decision levels


I.  CWA -- General

A. Objectives/goals (Sec. 101)+

B. Activities covered

1.  Point source discharges (Sec. 301)

a.  Industrial discharges

b.  Publicly owned treatment works (POTWs)

2.  Non-point source pollution (runoff) (Sec. 319)

3.  Indirect discharges (Sec. 307(b))

4.  Dredge-and-fill operations (wetlands) (Sec. 404)


II.  Point source discharges

A.  Permits for discharges (Sec. 402)

B.  Limitations (Sec. 301, Sec. 304)

1.  Technology-based +

2.  Water quality-based + +

a.  Water quality standards (Sec. 303)

b.  Establishing limitations

c.  Non-point source issues

C.  Federal-state relations


III.  Indirect discharges (Sec. 307(b))

A.  EPA pretreatment regulations

1.  General standards

a.  interference

b.  passthrough

2.  Categorical standards +

B.  Local programs +

1.  Required under permit for POTW

2.  Enforceable by EPA

3.  POTW treatment credits

C.  Federal-state-local relations


IV.  Non-point sources (Sec. 319)

A.  State management programs

1.  Best management practices

2. Implementation measures

a.  Regulatory

b.  Non-regulatory

B.  Federal role

1.  Grants +

2.  No federal enforcement of state program +

3.  No federal implementation of program +

C.  Related programs (Natural Resource Conservation Service)


V.  Dredge and fill (wetlands)(Sec. 404) +

A.  Permit

1.  Issued (or denied) by Corps

2.  Potential veto by EPA

3.  Exemptions and general permits

B.  Scope

1.  Waters of the U.S. (40 C.F.R. Sec. 230.3(s))

a.  Wetlands

b.  "Could affect interstate commerce"

2.  Discharge of dredged or fill material

C.  Criteria for permit review (40 C. F. R. Sec. 230.10)

1.  No practicable alternative

2.  No significant degradation of waters of U.S.

3.  Other



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