7. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Concluded at New York on 9 May 1992

ENTRY INTO FORCE: 21 March 1994, in accordance with article 23 (1).

REGISTRATION: 21 March 1994, No. 30822.

TEXT: Doc. A/AC.237/18 (Part II)/Add.1 and Corr.1; and depositary notifications C.N.148.1993.TREATIES-4 of 12 July 1993 (proc╦s-verbal of rectification of the original texts of the Convention); C.N.436.1993.TREATIES-12 of 15 December 1993 (corrigendum to C.N.148.1993.TREATIES-4 of 12 July 1993); C.N.247.1993.TREATIES-6 of 24 November 1993 (proc╦s-verbal of rectification of the authentic French text); C.N.462.1993.TREATIES-13 of 30 December 1993 (corrigendum to C.N.247.1993.TREATIES-6 of 24 November 1993); and C.N.544.1997.TREATIES-6 of 13 February 1998 (amendment to the list in annex I to the Convention).

STATUS: Signatures: 166. Parties: 179.

Note: The Convention was agreed upon and adopted by the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change, during its Fifth session, second part, held at New York from 30 April to 9 May 1992. In accordance with its article 20, the Convention was open for signature by States Members of the United Nations or of any of its specialized agencies or that are Parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice and by regional economic integration organizations, at Rio de Janeiro during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, from 4 to 14 June 1992, and remained thereafter open at the United Nations Headquarters in New York until 19 June 1993.

Participant

Signature

Ratification, accession (a), acceptance (A), approval (AA)

Participant

Signature

Ratification, accession (a), acceptance (A), approval (AA)

Afghanistan 12 Jun 1992

Albania 3 Oct 1994 a

Algeria 13 Jun 1992 9 Jun 1993

Angola 14 Jun 1992

Antigua and Barbuda 4 Jun 1992 2 Feb 1993

Argentina 12 Jun 1992 11 Mar 1994

Armenia 13 Jun 1992 14 May 1993 A

Australia 4 Jun 1992 30 Dec 1992

Austria 8 Jun 1992 28 Feb 1994

Azerbaijan 12 Jun 1992 16 May 1995

Bahamas 12 Jun 1992 29 Mar 1994

Bahrain 8 Jun 1992 28 Dec 1994

Bangladesh 9 Jun 1992 15 Apr 1994

Barbados 12 Jun 1992 23 Mar 1994

Belarus 11 Jun 1992

Belgium 4 Jun 1992 16 Jan 1996

Belize 13 Jun 1992 31 Oct 1994

Benin 13 Jun 1992 30 Jun 1994

Bhutan 11 Jun 1992 25 Aug 1995

Bolivia 10 Jun 1992 3 Oct 1994

Botswana 12 Jun 1992 27 Jan 1994

Brazil 4 Jun 1992 28 Feb 1994

Bulgaria 5 Jun 1992 12 May 1995

Burkina Faso 12 Jun 1992 2 Sep 1993

Burundi 11 Jun 1992 6 Jan 1997

Cambodia 18 Dec 1995 a

Cameroon 14 Jun 1992 19 Oct 1994

Canada 12 Jun 1992 4 Dec 1992

Cape Verde 12 Jun 1992 29 Mar 1995

Central African Republic 13 Jun 1992 10 Mar 1995

Chad 12 Jun 1992 7 Jun 1994

Chile 13 Jun 1992 22 Dec 1994

China 11 Jun 1992 5 Jan 1993

Colombia 13 Jun 1992 22 Mar 1995

Comoros 11 Jun 1992 31 Oct 1994

Congo 12 Jun 1992 14 Oct 1996

Cook Islands 12 Jun 1992 20 Apr 1993

Costa Rica 13 Jun 1992 26 Aug 1994

C┘te d'Ivoire 10 Jun 1992 29 Nov 1994

Croatia 11 Jun 1992 8 Apr 1996 A

Cuba 13 Jun 1992 5 Jan 1994

Cyprus 12 Jun 1992 15 Oct 1997

Czech Republic 18 Jun 1993 7 Oct 1993 AA

Democratic People's
Republic of Korea 11 Jun 1992 5 Dec 1994 AA

Democratic Republic
of the Congo 11 Jun 1992 9 Jan 1995

Denmark 9 Jun 1992 21 Dec 1993

Djibouti 12 Jun 1992 27 Aug 1995

Dominica 21 Jun 1993 a

Dominican Republic 12 Jun 1992 7 Oct 1998

Ecuador 9 Jun 1992 23 Feb 1993

Egypt 9 Jun 1992 5 Dec 1994

El Salvador 13 Jun 1992 4 Dec 1995

Eritrea 24 Apr 1995 a

Estonia 12 Jun 1992 27 Jul 1994

Ethiopia 10 Jun 1992 5 Apr 1994

European Community 13 Jun 1992 21 Dec 1993 AA

Fiji 9 Oct 1992 25 Feb 1993

Finland 4 Jun 1992 3 May 1994 A

France 13 Jun 1992 25 Mar 1994

Gabon 12 Jun 1992 21 Jan 1998

Gambia 12 Jun 1992 10 Jun 1994

Georgia 29 Jul 1994 a

Germany 12 Jun 1992 9 Dec 1993

Ghana 12 Jun 1992 6 Sep 1995

Greece 12 Jun 1992 4 Aug 1994

Grenada 3 Dec 1992 11 Aug 1994

Guatemala 13 Jun 1992 15 Dec 1995

Guinea 12 Jun 1992 7 May 1993

Guinea-Bissau 12 Jun 1992 27 Oct 1995

Guyana 13 Jun 1992 29 Aug 1994

Haiti 13 Jun 1992 25 Sep 1996

Honduras 13 Jun 1992 19 Oct 1995

Hungary 13 Jun 1992 24 Feb 1994

Iceland 4 Jun 1992 16 Jun 1993

India 10 Jun 1992 1 Nov 1993

Indonesia 5 Jun 1992 23 Aug 1994

Iran (Islamic
Republic of) 14 Jun 1992 18 Jul 1996

Participant

Signature

Ratification, accession (a), acceptance (A), approval (AA)

Participant

Signature

Ratification, accession (a), acceptance (A), approval (AA)

Ireland 13 Jun 1992 20 Apr 1994

Israel 4 Jun 1992 4 Jun 1996

Italy 5 Jun 1992 15 Apr 1994

Jamaica 12 Jun 1992 6 Jan 1995

Japan 13 Jun 1992 28 May 1993 A

Jordan 11 Jun 1992 12 Nov 1993

Kazakhstan 8 Jun 1992 17 May 1995

Kenya 12 Jun 1992 30 Aug 1994

Kiribati 13 Jun 1992 7 Feb 1995

Kuwait 28 Dec 1994 a

Lao People's
Democratic
Republic 4 Jan 1995 a

Latvia 11 Jun 1992 23 Mar 1995

Lebanon 12 Jun 1992 15 Dec 1994

Lesotho 11 Jun 1992 7 Feb 1995

Liberia 12 Jun 1992

Libyan Arab
Jamahiriya 29 Jun 1992 14 Jun 1999

Liechtenstein 4 Jun 1992 22 Jun 1994

Lithuania 11 Jun 1992 24 Mar 1995

Luxembourg 9 Jun 1992 9 May 1994

Madagascar 10 Jun 1992 2 Jun 1999

Malawi 10 Jun 1992 21 Apr 1994

Malaysia 9 Jun 1993 13 Jul 1994

Maldives 12 Jun 1992 9 Nov 1992

Mali 30 Sep 1992 28 Dec 1994

Malta 12 Jun 1992 17 Mar 1994

Marshall Islands 12 Jun 1992 8 Oct 1992

Mauritania 12 Jun 1992 20 Jan 1994

Mauritius 10 Jun 1992 4 Sep 1992

Mexico 13 Jun 1992 11 Mar 1993

Micronesia (Federated
States of) 12 Jun 1992 18 Nov 1993

Monaco 11 Jun 1992 20 Nov 1992

Mongolia 12 Jun 1992 30 Sep 1993

Morocco 13 Jun 1992 28 Dec 1995

Mozambique 12 Jun 1992 25 Aug 1995

Myanmar 11 Jun 1992 25 Nov 1994

Namibia 12 Jun 1992 16 May 1995

Nauru 8 Jun 1992 11 Nov 1993

Nepal 12 Jun 1992 2 May 1994

Netherlands1 4 Jun 1992 20 Dec 1993 A

New Zealand 4 Jun 1992 16 Sep 1993

Nicaragua 13 Jun 1992 31 Oct 1995

Niger 11 Jun 1992 25 Jul 1995

Nigeria 13 Jun 1992 29 Aug 1994

Niue 28 Feb 1996 a

Norway 4 Jun 1992 9 Jul 1993

Oman 11 Jun 1992 8 Feb 1995

Pakistan 13 Jun 1992 1 Jun 1994

Panama 18 Mar 1993 23 May 1995

Papua New Guinea 13 Jun 1992 16 Mar 1993

Paraguay 12 Jun 1992 24 Feb 1994

Peru 12 Jun 1992 7 Jun 1993

Philippines 12 Jun 1992 2 Aug 1994

Poland 5 Jun 1992 28 Jul 1994

Portugal4 13 Jun 1992 21 Dec 1993

Qatar 18 Apr 1996 a

Republic of Korea 13 Jun 1992 14 Dec 1993

Republic of Moldova 12 Jun 1992 9 Jun 1995

Romania 5 Jun 1992 8 Jun 1994

Russian Federation 13 Jun 1992 28 Dec 1994

Rwanda 10 Jun 1992 18 Aug 1998

Saint Kitts and Nevis 12 Jun 1992 7 Jan 1993

Saint Lucia 14 Jun 1993 14 Jun 1993

Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines 2 Dec 1996 a

Samoa 12 Jun 1992 29 Nov 1994

San Marino 10 Jun 1992 28 Oct 1994

Sao Tome and Principe 12 Jun 1992

Saudi Arabia 28 Dec 1994 a

Senegal 13 Jun 1992 17 Oct 1994

Seychelles 10 Jun 1992 22 Sep 1992

Sierra Leone 11 Feb 1993 22 Jun 1995

Singapore 13 Jun 1992 29 May 1997

Slovakia 19 May 1993 25 Aug 1994 AA

Slovenia 13 Jun 1992 1 Dec 1995

Solomon Islands 13 Jun 1992 28 Dec 1994

South Africa 15 Jun 1993 29 Aug 1997

Spain 13 Jun 1992 21 Dec 1993

Sri Lanka 10 Jun 1992 23 Nov 1993

Sudan 9 Jun 1992 19 Nov 1993

Suriname 13 Jun 1992 14 Oct 1997

Swaziland 12 Jun 1992 7 Oct 1996

Sweden 8 Jun 1992 23 Jun 1993

Switzerland 12 Jun 1992 10 Dec 1993

Syrian Arab Republic 4 Jan 1996 a

Tajikistan 7 Jan 1998 a

Thailand 12 Jun 1992 28 Dec 1994

the former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia 28 Jan 1998 a

Togo 12 Jun 1992 8 Mar 1995 A

Tonga 20 Jul 1998 a

Trinidad and Tobago 11 Jun 1992 24 Jun 1994

Tunisia 13 Jun 1992 15 Jul 1993

Turkmenistan 5 Jun 1995 a

Tuvalu 8 Jun 1992 26 Oct 1993

Uganda 13 Jun 1992 8 Sep 1993

Ukraine 11 Jun 1992 13 May 1997

United Arab Emirates 29 Dec 1995 a

United Kingdom2 12 Jun 1992 8 Dec 1993

United Republic
of Tanzania 12 Jun 1992 17 Apr 1996

United States of America 12 Jun 1992 15 Oct 1992

Uruguay 4 Jun 1992 18 Aug 1994

Uzbekistan 20 Jun 1993 a

Vanuatu 9 Jun 1992 25 Mar 1993

Venezuela 12 Jun 1992 28 Dec 1994

Viet Nam 11 Jun 1992 16 Nov 1994

Yemen 12 Jun 1992 21 Feb 1996

Yugoslavia 8 Jun 1992 3 Sep 1997

Zambia 11 Jun 1992 28 May 1993

Zimbabwe 12 Jun 1992 3 Nov 1992

Declarations
(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations were made upon ratification, accession, acceptance or approval.)

bulgaria

Declaration:

"The Republic of Bulgaria declares that in accordance with article 4, paragraph 6, and with respect to paragraph 2 (b) of the said article, it accepts as a basis of the anthropogenic emissions in Bulgaria of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, the 1988 levels of the said emissions in the country and not their 1990 levels, keeping records of and comparing the emission rates during the subsequent years."

croatia

Declaration :

"The Republic of Croatia declares that it intends to be bound by the provisions of the Annex 1, as a country undergoing the process of transition to a market economy."

cuba

Declaration:

With reference to article 14 of the United Nations Convention Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Government of the Republic of Cuba declares that, insofar as concerns the Republic of Cuba, any dispute that may arise between the Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention shall be settled through negotiation through the diplomatic channel.

european community

Upon signature:

Declaration:

"The European Economic Community and its Member States declare, for the purposes of clarity, that the inclusion of the European Community as well as its Member States in the lists in the Annexes to the Convention is without prejudice to the division of competence and responsibilities between the Community and its Member States, which is to be declared in accordance with article 21 (3) of the Convention."

Upon approval:

Declaration:

"The European Economic Community and its Member States declare that the commitment to limit anthropogenic CO2 emissions set out in article 4(2) of the Convention will be fulfilled in the Community as a whole through action by the Community and its Member States, within the respective competence of each.

In this perspective, the Community and its Member States reaffirm the objectives set out in the Council conclusions of 29 October 1990, and in particular the objective of stabilization of CO2 emission by 2000 and 1990 level in the Community as a whole.

The European Economic Community and its Member States are elaborating a coherent strategy in order to attain this objective."

fiji

Upon signature:

Declaration:

"The Government of Fiji declares its understanding that signature of the Convention shall, in no way, constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning state responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change, and that no provisions in the Convention can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law."

hungary

Declaration:

"The Government of the Republic of Hungary attributes great significance to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and it reiterates its position in accordance with the provisions of article 4.6 of the Convention on certain degree of flexibility that the average level of anthropogenic carbon-dioxide emissions for the period of 1985-1987 will be considered as reference level in context of the commitments under article 4.2 of the Convention. This understanding is closely related to the `process of transition' as it is given in article 4.6 of the Convention. The Government of the Republic of Hungary declares that it will do all efforts to contribute to the objective of the Convention."

kiribati

Upon signature:

Declaration:

"The Government of the Republic of Kiribati declares its understanding that signature and /or ratification of the Convention shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning state responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change, and that no provisions in the Convention can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law."

nauru

Upon signature:

Declaration:

"The Government of Nauru declares its understanding that signature of the Convention shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning state responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change, and that no provisions in the Convention can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law."

papua new guinea

Declaration:

"The Government of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea declares its understanding that ratification of the Convention shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under International Law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of Climate Change as derogating from the principles of general International Law."

Solomon Islands

Declaration:

"In pursuance of article 14 (2) of the said Convention [the Government of the Solomon Islands] shall recognise as compulsory, arbitration, in accordance with procedures to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties as soon as practicable, in an annex on arbitration."

TUVALU

Upon signature:

Declaration:

"The Government of Tuvalu declares its understanding that signature of the Convention shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning state responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change, and that no provisions in the Convention can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law."

Notifications made in accordance with article 4 (2)(g)3

Participant:

Date of receipt of the notification:

Participant:

Date of receipt of the notification:

Czech Republic 27 Nov 1995

Monaco 20 Nov 1992

Slovakia 23 Feb 1998

Slovenia 9 Jun 1998

Notes:

1 For the Kingdom in Europe.

2 In respect of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Bailiwick of Jersey and the Isle of Man.

3 States having, in accordance with article 4 (2)(g), notified the Secretary-General of their intention to be bound by article 4 (2) (a) and (b) of the Convention.

4 On 28 June 1999, the Government of Portugal informed the Secretary-General that the Convention would also apply to Macau.