British naval commander, born in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). He entered the navy in 1854, and saw service in the China Wars (1859--60) and the Egyptian War (1882). A Lord of the Admiralty from 1892--7, he was commander-in-chief on the North American and West Indies station (1897--9). From 1904, appointed First Sea Lord, he effected great improvements in naval training, dockyard organization, and armaments, and introduced "Dreadnought' battleships and "Invincible" battle cruisers in preparation for war against Germany. He resigned in 1915 in protest against the Dardanelles expedition.
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