The last tsar of Russia (18951917), born near St Petersburg, Russia, the son of Alexander III. His reign was marked by the alliance with France, an entente with Britain, a disastrous war with Japan (19045), and the establishment of the national assembly, or Duma (1906). He took command of the Russian armies against the Central Powers in 1915. Forced to abdicate at the Revolution, he was shot with his family at Yekaterinburg by the Red Guards.
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