Both Senator Helms (R, NC) and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) have home pages. 

The UNCLOS home page is on the UN site, and notes that the United Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea (DOALOS) serves as the secretariat for UNCLOS.  Professor Moore stated that UNCLOS does not create any UN institutions and is not housed within the UN, so he must consider the DOALAS secretariat to be so purely administrative as not to count.  The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, which was created under UNCLOS to resolve disputes about the law of the sea, is also at the UN Web site, but note that UNCLOS is a treaty quite separate from the UN Charter.  In contrast, the International Court of Justice "was set up in 1945 under the Charter of the United Nations to be the principal judicial organ of the Organization, and its basic instrument, the Statute of the Court, forms an integral part of the Charter," according to this page on the ICJ site

For a more complicated explanation of the relationship between the UN and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, go here. For a listing of the nations that have joined the United Nations (by joining the Charter), the Statute of the ICJ, and UNCLOS, you can register for the free United Nations treaty service (look for the "How to register" link); and then, after you've registered, look under "Status of Multilateral Treaties deposited with the Secretary-General," and then under "Table of Contents," and then under Chapter I (for the UN Charter and ICJ Statute) and Chapter XXI (for the Law of the Sea, with UNCLOS listed as the 6th agreement).

 

Here's a very brief biography of Barry Goldwater (courtesy of the folks from Grolier Online), as well as a slightly longer bio of Goldwater (courtesy of the US Senate), where Goldwater was serving when he was the named plaintiff in Goldwater v. Carter.   A biography of President Carter, the named defendant, is here courtesy of the White House, with the "Fast Fact": "Jimmy Carter championed human rights throughout the world."  (Barry Goldwater, by the way, would have been eligible for the White House's biographies of Presidents if he had beaten Lyndon Johnson in the 1964 presidential campaign.)  Senator Goldwater, who gave his name to the Goldwater-Nichols Act that re-organized the Joint Chiefs of Staff (and, in the eyes of some, very much helped US forces perform effectively in the Persian Gulf War) died in 1998.  President Carter, who was mentioned earlier in the semester in connection with his pronunciation of "nuclear", as well as in the Mazarr article about North Korea, remains very alive and engaged in, inter alia, the activities of the Carter Center.

At about 9 p.m. on Friday, April 2nd, the second story in the "Latest News" section on the Department of Defense site was a report on Pentagon press secretary Kenneth Bacon's statement that the Geneva Convention (a treaty that partly codified customary international law) applied to US soldiers captured near the Serbia-Macedonia border.  See this page.   Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Convention (Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field), a provison that you may read in full here, requires "humane" treatment of "members of armed forces who have laid down their arms" even "in the case of armed hostilities not of an international character."  Chapter II of Section I of the Appendix to the relevant 1907 Hague Convention (Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land) states that prisoners of war "must be humanely treated."  Scroll down this page to see that provision.  I failed in finding on-line whether Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and the United States are parties to these treaties.

The Pentagon press secretary's statement did not mention another 1907 Hague Convention, the Convention Relative to the Opening of Hostilities, which states in Article I: "The Contracting Powers recognize that hostilities between themselves must not commence without previous and explicit warning, in the form either of a reasoned declaration of war or of an ultimatum with conditional declaration of war."  See the full text of that treaty here.  CNN reports that President Clinton declared war on software pirates here, but I don't recall that Congress has declared war on Serbia and Montenegro under clause 11 of section 8 of Article I of the US Constitution.  Whether one could fulfill the requirement of the Convention Relative to the Opening of Hostilities by a communication from the President--that is, in a way that is clearly insufficient for domestic purposes--is an open question, but there certainly are instances in which international legal obligations and their domestic validity are not entirely consonant.

 

Her