[1] United Nations, Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate change, Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, U.N. Doc.No. FCCC/CP/1997/L.7/Add.1 (1997), (hereinafter "Kyoto Protocol")

    [2]Id. Annex B.

    [3] Id. Art 6(1).

    [4] Id. Art 12.

    [5] Id.

    [6] Id. Art 12(4), Art 12(7)

    [7] Ved P. Nanda, The Kyoto Protocol On Climate Change and the Challenges to Its Implementation: a Commentary, 10 Colo. J. Int’l Envtl. L. & Pol’y 319, 319-20 (1999).

    [8] Kenichi Matsui, Global Demand Growth for Power Generation, Input Choices and Supply Security, The Energy Journal, April 1, 1998, available in 1998 WL 13689924.

    [9] Karl E. Knapp, Exploring Energy Technology Substitution for Reduction Atmospheric Carbon Emissions, The Energy Journal, April 1, 1999, available in 1999 WL 13772360.

    [10] Id.

    [11] Id.

    [12] Id.

    [13] Id.

    [14] Id.

    [15] Matsui, supra note 8.

    [16] Id.

    [17] Alex G. Hanafi, Note, Joint Implementation: Legal and Institutional Issues for an Effective International Program to Combat Climate Change, 22 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 441, 458 (1998).

    [18] Madu Khanna & David Zilberman, Barriers to Energy-Efficiency in Electric Generation in India, The Energy Journal, Jan. 1, 1999, available in 1999 WL 13772357.

    [19] Id.

    [20] Id.

    [21] Id.

    [22] Hanafi, supra note 17, at 443.

    [23] David Mallery, Note, Clean Energy and the Kyoto Protocol: Applying Environmental Controls to Grandfatehred Power Facilities, 10 Colo. J. Int’l Envtl. L. & Pol’y 469, 481 (1999).

    [24] Id.

    [25] Khanna, supra note 18.

    [26] Mallery, supra note 23.

    [27] Id at 486.

    [28] Deborah E. Cooper, The Kyoto Protocol and China: Global Warming’s Sleeping Giant, 11 Geo. Int’l Envtl. L. Rev. 401, 423 (1999).

    [29] Knapp, supra note 9.

    [30] Id.

    [31] Kyoto Protocol, supra note 1.

    [32] Axel P. Gosseries, The Legal Architecture of Joint Implementation: What Do We Learn From the Pilot Phase, 7 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 49, 63 (1999). The author contrasts project based regimes with quota based regimes. In quota based regimes states or companies trade emissions quotas. This requires, however, that all the parties involved in the trade have agreed to emissions limits. Project based systems, on the other hand, can work in a regime where only some of the parties have emissions commitments.

    [33] Cooper, supra note 28, at 423.

    [34] Hanafi, supra note 17, at 464.

    [35] Id.

    [36] Nanda, supra note 2, at 329.

    [37] Hanafi, supra note 17, at 465.

    [38] Id. at 471.

    [39] One commentator suggests that private, governmental or nongovernmental organizations could participate in debt for nature swaps with developing countries. See, Sean Neal, Bringing Developing Nations On Board the Climate Change Protocol: Using Debt-For-Nature Swaps to Implement the Clean Development Mechanism, 11 Geo. Intl Envtl. L. Rev. 163 (1998).

    [40] Kyoto Protocol, supra note 1, Art. 12(8).

    [41] Nanda, supra note 7, at 326.

    [42] Hanafi, supra note 17, at 467.

    [43] Id. at 468.

    [44] Id. at 467.

    [45] Id.

    [46] Gosseries, supra note 32, at 61-62.

    [47] Id. at 62.

    [48] Hanafi, supra note 17, at 485.

    [49] Gosseries, supra note 32, at 62.

    [50] Id.

    [51] Hanafi, supra note 17, at 483-84. Joint Implementation projects are regarded by some developing countries as another form of Western "eco-imperalism". See also, Neal, supra Note 39, at 173. Brazil refused a debt to nature swap tendered by developed nations due to fears that "developed nations were attempting to usurp sovereign control from Brazil over its natural resources."

    [52] Id. at 482

    [53] Kyoto Protocol, supra note 1, Art. 12(5)(b)-(c)

    [54] Gosseries, supra note 32, at 112.

    [55] Id. at 108.

    [56] Id. at 110.

    [57] Id. at 113.

    [58] Gaetan Verhoosel, Beyond the Unsustainable Rhetoric of Sustainable Development: Transferring Environmentally Sound Technologies, 11 Geo, Int’l Envtl. L. Rev. 49, 66 (1998).

    [59] Global Registration Systems: Patent Cooperation Treaty Registers Record Growth in 1998. World Intellectual Property Magazine, Feb., 1999.

    [60] India and the PCT, World Intellectual Property Magazine, Feb., 1999.

    [61] ROBERT M. SHERWOOD, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 36 (1991). Novelty waiver was used by the United States after World War II to allow delayed filing by German and Japanese inventors. Although not discussing environmental issues, Sherwood’s book is one of the most comprehensive examinations of intellectual property rights and developing countries.

    [62] The topic of cultural responses to environmental agreements remains largely unexplored in the literature.

    [63] Cooper, supra note 28, at 432.

    [64] Khanna supra, note 18.

    [65] Cooper, supra note 28, at 428-29.

    [66] Id. at 420.

    [67] Mallery, supra note 23.