Forced Sexual Slavery of "The Comfort Women"
The Tokyo Trials
|Forced Sexual Slavery of The Comfort Women|
Women: Were they really abducted by the Japanese army?,http://coralnet.or.jp/kakichi/
bluntly denies that the 200,000 women forced to serve as sexual slaves
for the Japanese army were really abducted; the alternative apparently
is that they volunteered for these "jobs" or were already prostitutes hired
for this purpose. However, this site also includes a great deal of
documents and testimony refuting this claim which the author of the site
weakly tries to discredit. For instance, in response to the testimony
of Seiji Yoshida, a Japanese man who claims to have headed a recruitment
team, the site points to the lack of corroborating evidence as a means
of impeachment. No weight, though, is given to the idea that few in his
position would come forward and admit their past crimes. Similarly,
the testimony of a Comfort Woman, Mun Ock-Ju, that she was abducted by
a Japanese policeman is discounted as false because she did not say so
initially, i.e. when she was 16. The logic on this site seems rather
stretched as do the means with which the author tries to deny that the
Japanese military abducted these women. Moreover, even if the girls
were acquired by some "bad Korean pimp" as the author alleges, does that
truly relieve the Japanese government from blame for the very practice
of maintaining Comfort stations and turning these women into sexual slaves?
Colonialism, and the Trafficking of Women: "Comfort Women"
Forced into Sexual Labor for Japanese Soldiers, http://csf.colorado.edu/bcas/sample/comfdoc.htm
is an online article by Watanabe Kazuko providing a comprehensive discussion
of the Comfort Women. It provides an insightful historical context
of the practice and provides an adequate explanation of the treatment these
women were accorded. Especially interesting were the labels used
by the Japanese for them, most notably "Emperor's Children" and the belief
that such labels would make women eager to serve. It also discusses
the unconscionable denials by the Japanese government which did not cease
until 1992.The article also discusses the Comfort Women as a Feminist Issue
as well as the actions taken in response. This is a good paper with
nice analysis and credible facts.
in God's Image, http://witness.peacenet.or.kr/e_comfort/library/god/godimage.htm
contains testimonials, editorials, and links to solidarities and
activities. The editorials are rather piercing and speak harshly
of the stance of the Japanese government on the issue of the Comfort Women.
In one, Mee-Hyang Yoon asserts that "[i]t seems clear that the Japanese
government does not feel guilty for the inhumane war crimes" despite its
grudging agreement to pay reparations to survivors. A number of testimonials
provide a keen insight into the plight these women faced. The inclusion
of the testimony of Jeanne O'Herne, a Dutch Catholic girl whose family
lived in the Dutch East Indies and was forced into service as a Comfort
Woman, is significant as evidence that non-Asian girls were also subjected
to such treatment. Especially compelling testimonials are Your
Comfort Vs. My Death: A Korean Woman's Reflection on Military Sexual
Slavery by Japan, Hyun-Kyung Chung, http://witness.peacenet.or.kr/e_comfort/library/god/god3.htm
and , Former "Comfort Woman for the Japanese Army," Ok-Sun
The stories on this page provide a superb window into the horror of this
practice and make the longstanding denials by the Japanese government even
War Crimes Trials,
Carlos W. Porter, http://www.codoh.com/trials/triwartrial.html
argues, in a rather strange manner, that many of the supposed war crimes
committed by the Japanese during World War II were actually quite legal.
In addition to arguing that the attack on Pearl Harbor was an act of self-defense,
Porter argues that the Rape of Nanking never really happened and that reports
of the mistreatment of prisoners are simply extreme exagerations.
The tone of this site is that of someone "in-the-know" yet the majority
of the claims are not only erroneous but disturbed and revolting.
Nonetheless, the site is worth visiting because the self-defense argument
is decent and because the author does rely on international law in
places to prove that many of the atrocities were not clearly established
at the time as violations of the laws of war. As such, this site
illustrates two alleged problems with the Tokyo trials, namely that of
ex post facto justice and a willingness to interpret indeterminate laws
in favor of the prosecution.
Confessions of Japanese
War Criminals, http://www.centurychina.com/wiihist/confess/index.html
provides excerpts from a book entitled Japan at War, specifically
the testimonials of three Japanese War Criminals, a
army doctor, and a
spy. These testimonials are horrifying both in their lurid description
of the atrocities committed but in the exuberant manner in which some Japanese
soldiers committed them. They do, however, show that not all Japanese
were willing participants in these war crimes yet had little choice but
to commit them.
Some words of the young Japanese
who involved in the discussion about Japanese war crimes, http://www.centurychina.com/wiihist/japdeny/japsay.htm
is a brief site providing the responses of some Japanese youths to questions
regarding the commission of war crimes during World War II. While
this source is brief and lacks any analysis, many of the responses are
startling in their lack of recognition of what really happened. Unfortunately,
no context is provided for the worth of these statements, i.e. how common
such responses are. Without that information, it would be unfounded
to intuit what the author wants us to, namely that Japan has not properly
repented its past deeds and instilled a sense of shame in the succeeding
History we shall
never forget (China: 1931-1945), http://www.centurychina.com/wiihist/index.html
is a thorough site covering the war crimes committed during World War II.
Perhaps its best aspect is its discussion of the Failure
of Tokyo Trial, which not only sets forth the facts of the tribunal
and the actions/ events for which each defendant was charged but also the
reasons why the Tokyo Trial was such a failure. Most startling was
the lenient resolution of many verdicts despite the harsh sentences received.
This site is quite good, it is factually accurate, provides a great
analysis and contains a few pictures and other eye-catching features.
It also contains a number of links regarding the "Japanese
denial of history" as well as other, more detailed discussions of the
war crimes committed.
Justice Under the Sun:
Japanese War Crime Trials, Robert Barr Smith, http://www.thehistorynet.com/WorldWarII/articles/0996_cover.htm
focuses on the trial and subsequent hanging of General Tomoyuki Yamashita
in Manila on February 23, 1946. He was convicted of war crimes by
and American dominated tribunal not for his own acts, but for commanding
others who committed war crimes. Despite defense arguments that Yamashita
was being charged with being a leader and nothing more, the prosecutors
argued that the atrocities were so widespread that he could not have been
unaware of them. The arguments are well presented as are the underlying
facts. In addition, a number of nice pictures appear, adding to the