Physics 204 Laboratory
Physics is an experimental science. Experiments are performed to test the predictions of theories or to present data the theories cannot explain in order to spur better theories.
If you find physics difficult, you are not alone. The concepts are often not easy to grasp. We must each construct our own models of understanding. Passive listening to lectures and rote memorization are not good ways to learn. We must be able to assimilate the concepts and apply them to predict further phenomena. Studies have shown that learning improves when a student thinks about a concept or problem by him/herself first and then discusses it with a small group of peers. That is the philosophy we will follow in this laboratory. The abilities to work within a group of peers and to communicate ideas, both orally and in writing, are important skills to have. These are fundamental goals of this laboratory.
Most of the experiments in this laboratory will utilize data sensors interfaced to a computer. We utilize PASCO’s Data Studio software, because of its powerful ability to take data, present it, and analyze it. You will find most of the analysis tools you need in Data Studio. You can find the area, highlight a particular region, find averages, or a host of things with Data Studio. You will find that you will normally be able to fit or model data with an analytic function. We will also make occasional use of Excel. Remember to print out and include any computer results.
The purpose of this laboratory is to
1. teach you some important physical phenomena and concepts,
2. introduce you to proper laboratory procedures, to use computers and data sensors, and teach you some basic laboratory techniques,
3. give you confidence in your ability to take measurements and adequately analyze and interpret data,
4. teach you better oral and written communication skills,
5. teach you to think for yourself and to work in groups of peers.
Physics 204 is a dependent course for Physics 202 and 232 (and sometimes 152), but it is not a part of any of those courses. It is a one-credit course with an independent grade. You should, however, be registered in a lecture course at the same time you are taking this laboratory course. The lecture and lab courses complement each other.
We will block registration in Physics 204 on Friday, January 19, 2007. The labs start on Monday during the semester’s first full week of classes (January 22, 2007). We do this as a means to make sure every student found a place in a section.
After registration is blocked, Mr. Larry Suddarth (room 214 – Physics building, 924-6843, lts7x@Virginia.EDU) will be the only person who can add you into a section of 204.
Whether registration is blocked or not, in the first week, you must attend the section of your choice on time. If you are registered for that section, your place in that section is secure. If you do not attend or are late to your registered section, your name will be dropped from that section’s enrollment.
Let us re-emphasize this point: If you are registered for a section and wish to secure your place in that section, you must attend that section on time during the first full week of classes. Labs begin meeting on Monday, January 22, 2007.
After students registered for a section (who show up on time!) have been added to the roster, those who wish to add to that section will then be added if space is available. Since only 24 students may be in any given section, if more students want to add than there is space available, names will be drawn at random and added to the roster until the 24 spaces are filled. The remaining students must find other sections to attend.
In the extraordinary event that you cannot attend any sections during that first full week of classes (say due to major illness or a family emergency), please contact Mr. Suddarth as soon as possible, but absolutely before your scheduled section. Contact Mr. Suddarth regarding any problems with registration.
It is your responsibility to be registered for a laboratory section. If we block registration and you are unable to find a lab section open that meets your schedule, go to a suitable section the first week to see if space becomes available or to see if someone will switch with you. You may need to go to several sections before this is successful.
Every student must purchase the manual for Physics 204 at the UVa bookstore. This manual contains the laboratory activities which you will use each week. You’ll be assessed a 10% penalty each week if you fail to bring your manual to lab.
Your work in Physics 204 will consist of three parts:
1. A pre-lab homework assignment that you must complete before coming to the lab.
2. The lab itself, answering all the questions and predictions, and attaching data, results, graphs, and analysis as requested with your group members that will be turned in at the end of the lab.
3. A post-lab quiz that you must finish in the specified time period.
The labs are overseen by a graduate teaching assistant (commonly called a TA). The TA’s responsibilities are to ensure the safety of the students, protect the equipment, provide good teaching pedagogy to help you learn as much as possible, provide additional instructions and information concerning the lab, grade your work and, together with the faculty, assign your grade.
Physics 204 will be graded as follows:
· The pre-lab homework is worth 20%.
· The weekly lab is worth 50%. Your grade is based on your performance in the laboratory as evidenced by what you turn in each week.
· The post-lab quiz is worth 30%.
No scores will be dropped. Lab scores will be curved based on your TA’s students only (to take account of the different grading scales of the TA’s). Final grades are determined by relative class “rank”, not by a predefined numerical scale. Historically, the average grade in 204’s predecessors has been between B and B+.
Before attending your lab section during the first full week of classes, look over the lab manual and become familiar with the appendices to which you should refer as needed throughout the semester. Particularly important is Appendix D: The Accuracy of Measurements and Significant Figures. Refer to Appendix D and apply it appropriately throughout the semester.
For each lab, you must do the pre-lab homework that can be found on the WebAssign Internet site:
We are not having you submit a formal written lab report, but instead, we are requiring you to spend time preparing for the lab each week. We expect that since you are better prepared, the lab will be a better learning experience.
In order to prepare for the lab each week, you should do the following:
1. Read over the lab write-up in this manual (including the relevant appendices) to obtain an overview of the material.
2. Read the instructions again, but this time more carefully; highlighting the important features of the lab. Try to work through any derivations you do not understand (refer to your textbook as needed). In other words, be an active reader and study the manual.
3. Complete the pre-lab homework. The homework is not pledged, and you are encouraged to work together to understand and solve the problems. HOWEVER, you are responsible for really knowing how to work the problems. Simply “plugging numbers” into a formula or spreadsheet given to you will teach you nothing.
Normally you will work in groups of three. You will be assigned to a different group each week. We encourage a free exchange of ideas between group members (and also generally in the laboratory), and we expect you to share both in taking data and in operating the computer system. You will turn in your lab materials as a group at the end of the period. Everyone must fill out the material asked for in the manual, but you only should turn in one set of graphs and data when you are asked to print them out. Be sure that all such printouts are well noted with the activity number and your lab partners’ names. You and your group members will not necessarily receive a common grade for the lab each week, because we will grade both your results and your answers. Each lab is two hours (technically one hour and 50 minutes) long. You are expected to have vacated the room within one hour and 55 minutes to allow the next section to begin on time.
Absences will be excused only for legitimate reasons (illness, a death in your family, a University sponsored trip, etc.). If you must miss a laboratory session, submit a written petition (email will suffice) to your TA explaining your situation and requesting permission to make up the lab. This request must be made before the lab, not after. We will not necessarily allow you to make up a missed lab unless you tell your TA before the scheduled lab period. Unexcused absences earn a grade of zero for that lab.
Late arrival for any lab session is very disruptive and will be penalized. After an initial 5-minute grace period, the TA will deduct 10% from your grade for the first 10 minutes of tardiness and 15% for each successive 10-minute period (or part thereof).
You must receive written permission from your TA to make up a missed lab. All make-ups must be arranged by your TA in advance. Make-up labs are normally Thursday afternoon in Physics room 212 beginning at 3 PM. You may only make up a lab during the week that you missed it or the following week. The labs are not left set up more than the following week. It is the student’s responsibility to make sure the TA has given permission and to attend the make up.
If you miss a lab for an approved reason, and do not make up the lab until the following week, contact Mr. Suddarth for an extension for the pre-lab homework and the post-lab quiz. If you take the make-up on Thursday of the regular lab week, you do not receive a time extension.
Please pay close attention to the due dates of the WebAssign pre- and post-lab assignments.
The pre-lab homework will typically be posted on the Tuesday of the week before the regularly scheduled lab. The homework is due 30 minutes before the lab (and no extension other than that described in the make-up policy will be granted).
You will be given several submissions to obtain the correct answer. Do not waste your submissions. Seek assistance if you are having difficulty. Remember, the homework is NOT pledged. Indeed, you are encouraged to work together. As noted earlier, though, you are expected to learn how to do the problem, not just “work the calculator”.
The post-lab quiz IS pledged. You are allowed to use your book, notes, and manual (available in PDF form via the class web site), but you are NOT allowed to consult anyone.
The post-lab quiz will be posted right after the lab (at the next hour mark). It is DUE by midnight of the day you complete the lab. We do, however, give you a penalty-free extension until the following “calendar” Monday at 5 AM. This is the only extension you will receive. This is an absolute deadline: If, for whatever reason, you do not complete the post-lab quiz on time, you will receive a zero.
The quizzes have a time limit of 45 minutes. To allow for “transit delays” and the like, we will accept submissions up to five minutes late (again, without penalty). Like the 5 AM Monday deadline, this is an absolute deadline and if you do not submit the quiz on time, you will receive a zero. Do NOT “aim” for either deadline.
You will be given three submissions for the post-lab quiz to allow you to “save” your work and to reduce the temptation to wait until the last second to hit “Submit”. For the post-lab quiz, it is always the last submission that is graded.