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Curriculum Vitae

 

Robert Hull, University of Virginia, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Thornton Hall, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2442, Tel: (804)-982-5658, FAX: (804)-982-5660, email: hull@virginia.edu

British Citizen, US Permanent Resident.  married, three children.  Date of birth June 29, 1959.

 

EDUCATION:

     B.A.(Honours) in Physics; Advanced options in Electronics and Physics of Materials,

            Oxford University, 1980

     D.Phil., "High Resolution Electron  Microscopy of Sodium Beta’’-Alumina",

                 Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Oxford University, 1983

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE:

     1983-1985: Postdoctoral Member of Technical Staff, AT&T Bell Laboratories (Interface Physics 

     Department)

     1985-1987: Member of Technical Staff, Materials Research Laboratory, Hewlett Packard Labs

     1987-1994: Member of Technical Staff, Physics Research Division, AT&T Bell Laboratories

     Dec.1992-Mar.1993, Visiting Associate Professor, NEC Chair, University of Tokyo, Japan

     1994-1999 Tenured Associate Professor, Department of Materials Science and Eng., University of VA

     1997-present:  Heinz and Doris Wilsdorf Distinguished Research Chair

     1999-present   Full Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of VA

     2000-present    Director of UVa-NSF Materials Research Science and Engineering Center on   

     “Nanoscopic Materials Design”           

 

PROFESSIONAL SERVICE, ACTIVITIES AND HONORS

     * Member: American Physical Society; Materials Research Society; Microscopy Society of America

     * Meeting Chair, Materials Research Society Fall Meeting, 1990

     * Chair, Gordon Research Conference on Thin Films, 1993; Vice-chair 1991

     * Symposium Chair at Materials Research Society Meetings in Spring 1987, Spring 1988, Spring    

        1992, Spring 2001, Fall 2001

     * Conference Chair, “Int. Semiconductor Device Research Symp.”, Charlottesville, VA, Dec.1997

     * Symposium Chair, “Mechanical Properties of Thin Films”, American Physical Society, 1998

     * Symposium Chair, “Electronic and Superconducting Materials”, Microscopy Soc. of America, 1998

     * Program committee for numerous national and international conferences.

     * Elected President of Materials Research Society, 1997; Past President, 1998; President Elect, 1996; 

        2nd Vice-President 1995

     * Elected Councilor of Materials Research Society for term 1992-1994

        Chair of Materials Research Society Public Affairs Committee, 1999-

     * Member of Editorial Board for journals, "Interface Science" 1992-; "Journal of  Materials Science:

        Materials in Electronics”, 1993-; “Philosophical Magazine A, 1994-9; "Applied Physics Letters" and   

        "Journal of Applied Physics", 1998-2000

     * Series Editor for Kluwer book series on Electronic Materials, and Springer Series on Materials Sci.

     * Chair of Committee of Visitors, NSF-DMR, February, 1999
     * Member of Defense Science Research Council 2001-

     * Member of Review Committee of Materials Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1999-

 

PUBLICATIONS

      About 200 total in fields of microstructure-property relations, epitaxial growth, crystalline defects,  

      interfaces, electron/ion beam techniques, characterization and nanofabrication.

 

CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS

     About 60 invited presentations at national and international conferences in the past decade; over 100  

     contributed presentations as author or co-author; approximately 120 invited seminars at universities /

     industrial / government labs.

 
Bibliography

1. Books Edited

E1. "Initial Stages of Epitaxial Growth",  Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ed. R. Hull, J.M. Gibson and D.A. Smith (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA 1987)

E2. "Heteroepitaxy on Silicon: Fundamentals, Growth and Devices", Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ed.  H.K. Choi, R. Hull, I. Ishiwara and R.A. Nemanich. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA 1988)

E3. "Mechanisms of Epitaxial Growth", Materials Research Society Proceedings, ed. M. Chisholm, R. Hull, L.J. Schowalter and B. Garrison (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA 1992)

E4, “Germanium Silicon: Physics and Materials” R. Hull and J.C. Bean, eds., Semiconductor and Semimetals Series (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1999).

E5 “Properties of Crystalline Silicon”, R. Hull, Volume Editor (EMIS-INSPEC, England, 1999)

(A major project involving almost 100 authors, and over 1000 volume pages; one of the seminal references in an enormous field)

 

2. Book Chapters and Review Journals

R1. "Principles and Concepts of Strained Layer Epitaxy," by R. Hull and J. C. Bean.  In Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 33,  ed. T. P. Pearsall. (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1991), p. 1-67 - Book Chapter

R2. "Direct Observations of Relaxation Dynamics in Strained Epitaxial Semiconductor Layers", R. Hull and J.C. Bean, Advanced Materials. 30, 139-147 (1991) - Review Article

R3. "Semiconductor Interfaces" in VCH Materials Series on Semiconductors, Chapter 8, p. 381-443, by A. Ourmazd, R. Hull and R.T. Tung (1991) - Book Chapter

R4. "Misfit Dislocations in Lattice-Mismatched Epitaxial Films", R. Hull and J.C. Bean, Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Science. 17, 507-546 (1992) - Review Article

R5 "Equilibrium theories of Misfit Dislocation Networks in the SiGe/Si System", R. Hull, in "Properties of Strained and Relaxed Silicon Germanium", ed. E. Kasper, EMIS Datareviews Series No. 12 (IEE, Stevenage, UK, 1995), p. 17-27.  – Book Chapter

R6 "Metastable Strained Layer Configurations in the GeSi/Si System", R. Hull, in "Properties of Strained and Relaxed Silicon Germanium", ed. E. Kasper, EMIS Datareviews Series No. 12 (IEE, Stevenage, UK, 1995), p. 28-45. – Book Chapter

R7. “Equilibrium and Metastable Strained Layer Semiconductor Heterostructures”, R. Hull and E.A. Stach, Current Opinions in Solid State and Materials Science 1, p. 21-28 (1996). - Review Article

R8 “Misfit Strain Accommodation in SiGe Heterostructures”, R. Hull, in “Germanium Silicon: Physics and Materials” R. Hull and J.C. Bean, eds., Semiconductor and Semimetals Series Vol. 56 (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1998), pp102-168 - Book Chapter

R9: “Strain Accomodation and Relief in GeSi/Si Heteroepitaxy”, R. Hull and E. Stach, in “Directions in Condensed Matter Physics / Materials Physics: Heteroepitaxy”, ed. A.K. Liu (World Scientific Press, 1999), pp. 299-367. - Book Chapter

 

3. Journal Articles

J1. "A High Resolution Electron Microscopic Study of Defects in Sodium Beta'''-Alumina”, R. Hull, D. J. Smith and C. J. Humphreys, Journal of Microscopy 130, p. 203-214 (1983).

J2. "Atomic Structure and Properties of Epitaxial Thin Film Semiconductor Interfaces”, J. M. Gibson. R. T. Tung, J. M. Phillips and R. Hull, J. de Physique C. 46, p. 369-77 (1984).

J3. "Comparison of Pulsed Laser and Furnaced Annealing of Nitrogen Implanted Silicon", T. P. Smith III, P. J. Stiles, W. M. Augustyniak, W. L. Brown, R. Hull, D. C. Jacobson and R. A. Kant,  J. Appl. Phys. 58, p.193-6 (1985).

J4. "Structure Imaging of Commensurate Semiconductor-Semiconductor Interfaces", R. Hull, J. M. Gibson and J. C.  Bean, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, p. 179-81 (1985).

J5. "Growth of a Novel InAs-GaAs Strained Layer Superlattice on InP", M. C. Tamargo, R.  Hull, L. H. Greene. J. R. Hayes and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, p. 569-71 (1985).

J6. "Growth of a Novel InAs-GaAs Strained Layer Superlattice on InP", M. C. Tamargo, R.  Hull, L. H. Greene. J. R. Hayes and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, p. 569-71 (1985).

J7. "Thermal Relaxation of Metastable Strained-Layer GexSi1-x/Si  Epitaxy", A. T. Fiory, J. C. Bean, R. Hull and S. Nakahara, Phys. Rev. B. 31, p. 4063-5 (1985).

J8. "Hybrid Electronic Properties Between the Molecular and Solid State Limits: Lead Sulphide and Silver Halide Crystals", R. Rossetti, R. Hull, J. M. Gibson and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 83, p. 1406-10 (1985).

J9. "Elastic Relaxation in Transmission Electron Microscopy of Strained-Layer Superlattices", J. M. Gibson, R. Hull, J. C. Bean and M. M. J. Treacy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, p. 649-51 (1985).

J10. "The Effect of Pressure on the Solid Phase Epitaxial Regrowth Rate in Silicon", E. Nygren, M. J. Aziz, D. Turnbull, J. M. Poate, D. C. Jacobson and R. Hull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, p. 232-3 (1985).

J11. "Pressure Dependence of Arsenic Diffusivity in Silicon", E. Nygren, M. J. Aziz, D. Turnbull, J. M. Poate, D. C. Jacobson and R. Hull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, p.105-7 (1985).

J12 "Effective Mass Filtering: Giant Quantum Amplification of the Photocurrent in a Semiconductor Superlattice", F. Capasso, K. Mohammed, A. Y. Cho, R. Hull and A. L. Hutchinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, p. 420-2 (1985).

J13. "New Quantum Photoconductivity and Large Photocurrent Gain by Effective Mass Filtering in a Forward-Biased Superlattice p-n Junction", F. Capasso, K. Mohammed, A. Y. Cho, R. Hull and A. L.Hutchinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, p. 1152-5 (1985).

J14. "Stability of Strained-Layer Semiconductor Superlattices", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, F. Cerdeira,  J. M. Gibson and A. T. Fiory, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 56-58 (1986).

J15. "Electroreflectance Spectroscopy of Si/GexSi1-x Quantum Well Structures", T. P. Pearsall, F. H. Pollak, J. C. Bean and R. Hull, Phys. Rev. B. 33, p. 6821-30 (1986).

J16. "Characterization of InP/GaInAs/InP Heterostructures Grown by Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy for High Speed  p-i-n Diodes", K. Carey, R. Bauer, D. Bimberg, R. Hull, D. Oertel, J. E. Turner and S. Y. Wang, J. Cryst. Growth 77, p. 558-63 (1986).

J17. "Relationship Between Secondary Defects and Electrical Activation in Ion-Implanted, Rapidly Annealed GaAs", S. J. Pearton, R. Hull, D. C. Jacobson, J. M. Poate and J. S. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, p. 38-40 (1986).

J18. "Trapping of Oxygen at Homoepitaxial Si-Si Interfaces", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, J. M. Gibson, D. Joy and M. E. Twigg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, p. 1287-9 (1986).

J19. "Higher Excited Electronic States in Clusters of ZnSe, CdSe and ZnS: Spin-Orbit, Vibronic and Relaxation Phenomena", N. Chestnoy, R. Hull and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 85, p. 2237-42 (1986).

J20. "Atomic Structure of the GaAs/Si Interface", R. Hull, S. J. Rosner, S. M. Koch and J. S. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, p. 1714-16 (1986).

J21. “Growth of GeSi/Si Strained-Layer Superlattices Using Limited Reaction Processing”, C. M. Gronet, C. A. King, W. Opyd, J. F. Gibbons, S. D. Wilson, R. Hull, J. Appl. Phys. 61 p. 2407-9 (1987).

J22. “Growth of GeSi/Si Strained-Layer Superlattices Using Limited Reaction Processing”, C. M. Gronet, C. A. King, W. Opyd, J. F. Gibbons, S. D. Wilson, R. Hull, J. Appl. Phys. 61 p. 2407-9 (1987).

J23. “Nucleation of GaAs on Si: Experimental Evidence for a Three-Dimensional Critical Transition” R. Hull and A. Fischer-Colbrie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 851-3 (1987)

J24. “The growth of GaAs on Si by MBE”, S. M. Koch, S. J. Rosner, R. Hull, G. W. Yoffe, J. S.  Harris Jr., J. Crystal Growth 81, p.205-13 (1987).

J25. "Effect of Substrate Surface Structure on Nucleation of GaAs on Si(100)", R. Hull, A. Fischer-Colbrie, S. J. Rosner, S. M. Koch and J. S. Harris Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, p. 1723-5 (1987).

J26. "Structural and Photoluminescent Properties of GaInAs Quantum Wells with InP Barriers Grown by Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy", K. W. Carey, R. Hull, J. E. Fouquet, F. G. Kellert and G. R. Trott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, p. 910-12 (1987).

J27. "Growth and Characterization of Molecular Beam Epitaxial GaAs Layers on Porous Silicon", T. L. Lin, L. Sadwick, K. L.Wang, Y. C. Kao, R. Hull, C. W. Nieh, D. N. Jamieson and J. K. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, p. 814-6 (1987).

J28. “Model for Facet and Sidewall Defect Formation During Selective Epitaxial Growth of (001) Silicon”, C. I. Drowley, G. A. Reid, R. Hull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, p.546-8 (1988).

J29. "Kinematical Simulation of High-Resolution X-ray Diffraction Curves of GexSi1-x/Si Strained-Layer Superlattices: A Structural Assessment", J. M. Vandenberg, J. C. Bean, R. A. Hamm and R. Hull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, p. 1152-4 (1988).

J30. "In-Situ Observations of Misfit Dislocation Propagation in GexSi1-x/Si (100) Heterostructures", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, D. J. Werder and R. E. Leibenguth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, p. 1605-7 (1988).

J31. "Superconductivity Near 70K in a New Family of Layered Copper Oxides", R. J. Cava,  R. C. Farrow, P. K. Gallagher, B. Batlogg, J. J. Krajewski, R. Hull, J. H. Marshall, P. Marsh, S. H. Glarum, W. F. Peck, T. Siegrist,  L. F. Schnemeeyer,  L. W. Rupp, J. V. Waszczak, P. Trevor and R.B. van Dover, Nature 336, p. 211-14 (1988).

J32. "Activation Barriers to Strain Relaxation in Lattice-Mismatched Epitaxy", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, D. J. Werder and R. E. Leibenguth, Phys. Rev. B40, p. 1681-4 (1989).

J33. "Nucleation of Misfit Dislocations in Strained-Layer Epitaxy in the GexSi1-x/Si System", R. Hull and J. C. Bean, J. Vac. Sci. A7, p. 2580-5 (1989).

J34. "Variation in Misfit Dislocation Behavior as a Function of Strain in the GeSi/Si System", R. Hull and J. C. Bean, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, p. 925-7 (1989).

J35. "Detailed Atomic-Scale Structure of AlInAs/GaInAs Quantum Wells", D. Bimberg, D. Oertel, R. Hull, G. A. Reid and K.W. Carey, J. Appl. Phys. 65, p. 2688-92 (1989) 

J36. "Role of Strained Layer Superlattices in Misfit Dislocation Reduction in Growth of Epitaxial Ge0.5Si0.5 Alloys on Si(100) Substrates", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, R. E. Leibenguth and D. J. Werder, J. Appl. Phys. 65, p. 4723-9 (1989).

J37. "Microstructure of Pb2Sr2ACu3O8 Superconductors: New Structure and Superstructures", R. Hull, J. M. Bonar, L. F. Schneemeyer, R. J. Cava, J. J. Krajewski and J. V. Waszczak, Phys. Rev. B. 39, p. 9685-8 (1989).

J38. "Misfit Dislocations in Pseudomorphic In0.26Ga0.74As/GaAs Quantum Wells: Influence on Lifetime and Diffusion of Excess Excitons", M. Grundmann, J. Christen, D. Bimberg, A. Fischer-Colbrie and R. Hull, J. Appl. Phys. 65, p. 2214-16 (1989).

J39. "Crystal Growth and Substitutional Chemistry of Pb2Sr2MCu3O8", L. F. Schneemeyer, R. J. Cava, A. C. W. P. James, P. Marsh, T. Siegrist, J. V. Waszczak, J. J. Krajewski, W. F. Peck, Jr., R. L. Opila, S. H. Glarum, J. H. Marshall, R. Hull and J. M. Bonar, Chemistry of Materials 1, p. 548-53 (1989).

J40. "The Structure and Optical Properties of Strained Ge-Si Superlattices Grown on (001) Ge", T. P. Pearsall, J. M. Bonar, J. M. Vandenberg and R. Hull, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, p. 2104-7 (1989).

J41. "A Phenomenological Description of Strain Relaxation in GexSi1-x/Si(100) Heterostructures", R. Hull, J. C. Bean and C. Buescher, J. Appl. Phys. 66, p. 5837-43 (1989).

J42. "Hydrogen Surface Coverage: Raising the Silicon Epitaxial Growth Temperature", S. H. Wolff, S. Wagner, J. C. Bean, R. Hull and J. M. Gibson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, p. 2017-19 (1989).

J43. "Thermal Stability of Si/GexSi1-x/Si Heterostructures", R. Hull and J. C. Bean, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, p. 1900-2 (1989).

J44. "Anisotropic Strain Relaxation in Buried CoSi2 Layers Formed by Mesotaxy," J. M. Vandenberg, A. E. White, R. Hull, K. T. Short and S. M. Yalisove, Journal of Applied Physics 67, p. 787-91 (1990).

J45. “Amorphization and Regrowth in Si/CoSi/sub 2//Si heterostructures”, K. Maex, A. E. White, K. T. Short, Y. F. Hsieh, R. Hull, J. W. Osenbach, H. C. Praefcke, J. Appl. Phys. 68, p. 5641-7 (1990) 

J46. "GaAs on Si: Improved MBE Growth Conditions, Properties of Undoped GaAs, High 2DEG Mobility, and Fabrication of High Performance AlGaAs/GaAs SDHT's and Ring Oscillators," by N. Chand, F. Ren, A. T. Macrander, J. P. van der Ziel, A. M. Sergent, R. Hull, S. N. G. Chu, Y  K. Chen and D. V. Lang, J. Appl. Phys. 67, p. 2343-53 (1990).

J47. "Formation of Continuous CoSi2 Layers by High Co Dose Implantation Into Si(100)," by R. Hull, A. E. White, K. T. Short and J. M. Bonar, J. Appl. Phys. 68, p. 1629-34 (1990).

J48. "Enhanced Strain Relaxation in Si/GexSi1-x/Si Heterostructures via Point Defect Concentrations Introduced by Ion Implantation," by R. Hull, J. C. Bean, J. M. Bonar, G. S. Higashi, K. T. Short, H. Temkin and A. E. White, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, p. 2445-7 (1990).

J49. "Interpretation of Dislocation Propagation Velocities in Strained GeSi/Si(001) Heterostructures by the Diffusive Kink Pair Model", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, L. Peticolas, D. Bahnck and F. Unterwald, J. Appl. Phys. 70, p. 2052 (1990).

J50. "Microstructure of Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-x Thin Films Grown on LaAlO3(001)”, Y. F. Hsieh, M. P. Siegal, R. Hull and J. M. Phillips, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, p. 2268-70 (1990).

J51. "Dependence of Misfit Dislocation Velocities upon Growth Technique and Oxygen Content in Strained GeSi/Si (100) Heterostructures", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, D. Noble, J. Hoyt and J. F. Gibbons, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, p. 1585-7 (1991).

J52. "Growth of GexSi1-x Alloys on Si(110) Surfaces," R. Hull, J. C. Bean, L .J. Peticolas and D. Bahnck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, p. 964-6 (1991).

J53. "Interfacial Structure and its Effect on Nucleation and Growth Energetics in Mesotaxial Si/CoSi2/Si Structures", R. Hull, Y. F. Hsieh, A. E. White and K. T. Short, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, p. 3467-9 (1991).

J54. "Current Gain Enhancement in Bipolar Transistors by Low Energy Ion Beam Modification of the Polycrystalline Si Emitter”, B. Jalali, C. A. King, G. S. Higashi, J. C. Bean, R. Hull, Y. F. Hsieh, J. Macaulay and J. M. Poate, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, p. 2009-11 (1991).

J55. "Formation of CoSi2 in Co+ Implanted Si(111)”, Y. F. Hsieh, R. Hull, A. E. White and K. T. Short, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, p. 122-4 (1991).

J56. "Coalescence of buried CoSi2 Layers Formed by Mesotaxy in Si(111)”, Y. F. Hsieh, R. Hull, A. E. White and K. T. Short, J. Appl. Phys. 70, p. 7354-61 (1991).

J57.  "Improvement in Heteroepitaxial Film Quality by a Novel Substrate Patterning Geometry", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, G. S. Higashi, M. L. Green, L. Peticolas, D. Bahnck and D. Brasen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, p. 1468-70 (1991).

J58. "Observation of New Misfit Dislocation Configurations and Slip Systems at Ultra-High Stresses in the (Al)GaAs/InGaAs/GaAs(100) System", J. M. Bonar, R. Hull, R. Malik and J. F. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, p. 1327-9 (1991).

J59. "Misfit Dislocations in Strained Layer Epitaxy: I. Energetics", R. Hull and J. C. Bean, Scripta Met. et Mat. 27, p. 657-62 (1992).

J60. "Misfit Dislocations in Strained Layer Epitaxy: II. Kinetics", J. C. Bean and R. Hull, Scripta Met. et Mat. 27, p. 663-7 (1992).

J61. “Stress Relaxation in Mo/Si Multilayer Structures”, R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, C. A. Volkert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, p. 3120-2 (1992).

J62. “On the Dodson-Tsao Excess Stress for Glide of a Threading Dislocation in a Strained Epitaxial Layer”, L. B. Freund, R. Hull, J. Appl. Phys. 71, p. 2054-6 (1992).

J63. "A Quantitative Analysis of Strain Relaxation in Ge(x)Si(1-x)/Si(110) Heterostructures and an Accurate Determination of Stacking Fault Energy in Ge(x)Si(1-x) alloys", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, L. J. Peticolas, D. Bahnck, B. E. Weir and L. C. Feldman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, p. 2802-4 (1993).

J64. "Dislocation Glide on {110} Planes in Semiconductors with Diamond or Zincblende Structure", M. Albrecht, H. P. Strunk, R. Hull and J. M. Bonar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, p. 2206-8 (1993).

J65. "Finite Element Analysis of Stress Relaxation in Thin Foil Plan View Transmission Electron Microscope Samples", R. Hull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, p. 2291-3 (1993).

J66. "Microscopic Studies of Semiconductor Lasers Utilizing a Combination of Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electroluminescence Imaging and Focussed Ion Beam Sputtering", R. Hull, D. Bahnck, F. A. Stevie, L. A. Koszi and S. N. G. Chu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, p. 3408-10 (1993).

J67. "Changes in Electrical Device Characteristics during the In-Situ Formation of Dislocations", F. M. Ross, R. Hull, D. Bahnck, J. C. Bean, L. J. Peticolas and C. A. King, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, p. 1426-8 (1993).

J68. "Ge0.2Si0.8Bragg-reflector Mirrors for Optoelectronic Device Applications", R. Kuchibhotla, J. C. Campbell, J. C. Bean, L. Peticolas and R. Hull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, p. 2215-17 (1993).

J69. "Misfit Dislocation Microstructure and Kinetics for InxGa1-xAs/InP (100) and (110) Interfaces under Tensile and Compressive Stress", R. Hull, R. A. Logan, B. E. Weir and J. M. Vandenberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1504 (1993).

J70. "Characterization of As Doping Profile across the Polycrystalline Si/Si Interface in Polycrystalline Si Emitter Biploar Transistors", J. M. MacCaulay, R. Hull, B. Jalali and C. Magee, Appl. Phys. Lett 63, p. 1258-60 (1993).

J71. "New Insights into the Microscopic Motion of Dislocations in Covalently Bonded Semiconductors by In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscope Observations of Misfit Dislocations in Thin Strained Epitaxial Layers", R. Hull and J. C. Bean, Phys. Stat. Sol. (A) 138, p. 533-46 (1993).

J72. "Misfit Dislocation Propagation Kinetics in GexSi1-x/Ge(100) Heterostructures", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, L. J. Peticolas, B. E. Weir, K. Prabhakaran and T. Ogino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, p. 327-9 (1994).

J73. "Direct Observations of Potential Distribution across p-n Junctions Using Off-Axis Electron Holography", M. R. McCartney, D. J. Smith, R. Hull, J. C. Bean, E. Voelkl and B. Frost, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, p. 2603-5 (1994).

J74. "An Efficient Method for Cleaning Ge(100) Surfaces", K. Prabhakaran, T. Ogino, R. Hull, J. C. Bean and L. J. Peticolas, Surf. Sci. 316, p. L1031-3 (1994).

J75. "Observation of Strong Contrast from Doping Variations in Transmission Electron Microscopy of InP-based Semiconductor Laser Diodes", R. Hull, F. A. Stevie and D. Bahnck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, p. 341-3 (1995).

J76. "Catastrophic Degradation Lines at the Facets of InGaAs/InP Lasers Investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy", C. W. Snyder, J. W. Lee, R. Hull and R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, p. 488-90 (1995).

J77. "Characterization of Strain in an Advanced Semiconductor Laser Structure with Nanometer Range Resolution using a New Algorithm for Electron Diffraction Contrast Imaging Interpretation", K.G. F. Janssens, O. Van der Biest, J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes and R. Hull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, p. 1530-2 (1995).

J78. “Fabrication and Performance of Selectively Oxidized Vertical-Cavity Lasers”, K. D. Choquette, K. L. Lear, R. P. Schneider Jr., K. M. Geib, J. J. Figiel,  R. Hull, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 7, p. 1237-9 (1995).

J79. “Combining Transmission Electron Microscopy with Focused Ion Beam Sputtering for Microstructural Investigations of AlGaAs/GaAs Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors”, C. W.                                 Snyder, M. R. Frei, D. Bahnck, L. Hopkins, R. Hull, L. Harriott, T. Y. Chiu, T. Fullowan, B. Tseng, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B13, p.1514-18 (1995).

J80. “GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Wire Lasers Fabricated by Cleaved Edge Overgrowth”, W. Wegscheider, L. N. Pfeiffer, A. Pinczuk, K. W. West, M. M. Dignam, R. Hull, R. E. Leibenguth,  Journal of Crystal Growth 150, p.285-92 (1995).

J81. “Applications of Focused Ion Beams in Microelectronics Production, Design and Development”, F. A. Stevie, T. C. Shane, P. M. Kahora, R. Hull, V. C. Kannan, E. David, Surface and Interface Analysis 23, p. 61-8 (1995).

J82. “Molecular Beam Deposition of High Quality Silicon Oxide Dielectric Films”, N. Chand, J. E. Johnson, J. W. Osenbach, W. C. Liang, L. C. Feldman, W. T. Tsang, H. W. Krautter, M. Passlack, R. Hull, V. Swaminathan, Journal of Crystal Growth 148, p. 336-44 (1995).

J83. “Selective Oxidation of Buried AlGaAs versus AlAs Layers”, K. D. Choquette, K. M. Geib, H. C. Chui, B. E. Hammons, H. Q. Hou, T. J. Drummond and R. Hull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, p. 1385-7 (1996).

J84. “Suppression of Boron Transient Enhanced Diffusion in SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors by Carbon Incorporation”, L. D. Lanzerotti, J. C. Sturm, E. A. Stach, R. Hull, T. Buyuklimanli and C. Magee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, p. 3125-7 (1997).

J85.  “Advances in Selective Wet Oxidation of AlGaAs Alloys”, K. D. Choquette, K. M. Geib, C. I. H. Ashby, R. D. Twesten, O. Blum, H. Q. Hou, D. M. Follstaedt, B. E. Hammons, D. Mathes and R. Hull, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 3, p. 916-26 (1997).

J86. “Effect of the Surface Upon Misfit Dislocation Velocities during the Growth and Annealing of SiGe/Si(001) Heterostructures”, E. A. Stach, R. Hull, R. Tromp, M. Reuter, M. Copel, F. LeGoues and J. Bean,  J. Appl. Phys. 83, p. 1931-7 (1998).

J87. “Strain Compensated In1-xGaxAs (x<0.47) Quantum Well Photodiodes for Extended Wavelength Operation”, J. C. Dries,  M. R. Gokhale, K. J. Thomson, S. R. Forrest, R. Hull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, p. 2263-5 (1998).

J89. “Interaction of Moving Dislocations in Semiconductors with Point, Line and Planar Defects“ R. Hull, E.A. Stach, R. Tromp, F. Ross and M. Reuter, phys. stat. sol. a 171, 133-146 (1998)

J90. "Nanometer-Scale Arrangement of Human Serum Albumin by Adsorption on Defect Arrays Created with a Finely Focused Ion Beam", A.A. Bergman, J. Buijis, J. Herbig, D.T. Mathes, J.J. Demarest, C.D. Wilson, C.T. Reimann, R.A. Baragiola, R. Hull and S.O. Oscarsson, Langmuir 14, 6785-8 (1998)

J91 "Beryllium doping and silicon amphortericity in (110) GaAs-based heterostructures: structural and  optical properties", J. Xu, E. Towe, Y. Quan and R. Hull, J. Cryst. Growth 196, 26-32 (1999)

J92 "Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Chemistry and Geometry using Focused Ion Beam Microscopy", D.N. Dunn and R. Hull, Appl. Physics Letters 75, 3414-6 (1999)

J93 "Nanoscale Structure and Chemistry of Al0.49In0.51P Thermal Oxide", D. Mathes, R. Hull, R.D. Dupuis, R. Heller and B. Tinkham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2572-5 (1999)

J94 “New mechanism for dislocation blocking in strained layer epitaxial growth”, E.A. Stach, K.W. Schwarz, R. Hull, F.M. Ross, and R.M. Tromp; Physical Review Letters, 84, 947-50 (2000)

J95 “Nanoscale Characterization of Stresses in Semiconductor Devices by Quantitative Electron Diffraction”, J. Demarest, R. Hull , K. Schonenberg, and K. Janssens, Appl. Phys. Lett..77,.412-14 (2000)

J96 "In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies of the Interaction between Dislocations in Strained SiGe/Si(001) Heterostructures", E.A. Stach, R. Hull, R.M. Tromp, F.M. Ross, M.C. Reuter and J.C. Bean, Philos. Mag A 80, 2159-200 (2000).

J97 “The generation of mechanically mixed layers (MMLs) during sliding contact and the effects of lubricant thereon “, J.L. Young, Jr, D. Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, and R. Hull, Wear 246,74-90 (2000)

J98 “Evolution of nanoscale texture in ultrathin TiN films”, M.J. Williamson, D.N. Dunn, R. Hull, S. Kodambaka, I. Petrov I, and J.E. Greene, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2223-5 (2001)

J99 “Texture transformations in reactive metal films deposited upon amorphous substrates”, D.N. Dunn, R. Hull, F.M. Ross, and R.M. Tromp,  J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2635-40 (2001)

J100 “Deep submicron microcontact printing on planar and curved substrates utilizing focused ion beam fabricated printheads” D.M. Longo, W.E. Benson, T. Chraska, and R. Hull, Appl. Phys. Lett.78 981-3 (2001)

J101 “Photopumped red-emitting InP/In0.5Al0.3Ga0.2P self-assembled quantum dot heterostructure lasers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition”; J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, G. Walter, D. A. Kellogg, N. Holonyak, Jr., D. T. Mathes and R. Hull , Appl. Phys. Lett 78, 4091-3 (2001)

J102 “High-density InP self-assembled quantum dots embedded in In0.5Al0.5P grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition”; J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, D. T. Mathes, R. Hull, C.V. Reddy and V. Narayanamurti, Appl. Phys. Lett 78, 3526-8 (2001)

J 103 “Enhancement of dislocation velocities by stress assisted kink nucleation at the native oxide / SiGe interface”, E.A. Stach and R. Hull, Appl. Phys. Lett 79, 335-7 (2001)

4. Refereed Conference Papers

C1. "Electron Irradiation Damage Mechanisms in Sodium Beta''-Alumina", R. Hull, D. Cherns, C. J. Humphreys and J. L. Hutchison, Electron Microscopy and Analysis 1981 (Ed. M.J. Goringe) Institute of Physics, Bristol, England, p. 23-26 (1982).

C2. "High Resolution Electron Microscopy of Silver Beta- and Beta''-Aluminas", R.  Hull, A. K. Petford, C. J. Humphreys and D. J. Smith, Solid State Ionics 9 & 10, p. 181-186 (1983).

C3. "Examination of Cracks and Other Defects in Sodium Beta and Beta''-Aluminas using Acoustic, Optical and Electron Microscopy", A. K. Petford, G. A. D. Briggs, R. Hull, C. J. Humphreys and C. Ilett, Solid State Ionics 9 & 10, p.173-176 (1983).

C4.  "The Structure of GexSi1-x/Si(100) Interfaces and Superlattices", R. Hull, A. T. Fiory, J. C. Bean, J. M. Gibson, L. Scott, J. L. Benton and S. Nakahara, Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors, p. 505-11 (1985).

C5. "Elastic Relaxation in Compositionally-Modulated Thin Foils", M. M. J. Treacy, J. M. Gibson and R. Hull, Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors, p. 1179-85 (1985).

C6. “Structural Studies of an InAs-GaAs Superlattice Alloy”, M. C. Tamargo, R. Hull, L. H Greene, J. R. Hayes, N. Tabatabaie, A. Y. Cho in “Thin Films: the Relationship of Structure to Properties” Mat. Res. Soc. Proc, April 1985, San Francisco, CA, p.271-5 (1985).

C7. "Interfacial Structure and Stability in GexSi1-x/Si Strained Layer Superlattices", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, J. M. Gibson, K. J. Marcantonio, A. T. Fiory and S. Nakahara, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 37, p. 261-6 (1985).

C8. "Transmission Electron Microscopy of Compositionally-Modulated Semiconductor Films", J. M. Gibson, M. M. J. Treacy, R. Hull and J. C. Bean, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 37, p. 267-72 (1985).

C9. "Pressure Dependence of the Diffusivity of Arsenic in Crystalline Silicon", E. Nygren, M.  J. Aziz, D. Turnbull, J. Poate, D. C. Jacobson and R. Hull, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 36, p. 77-82 (1985).

C10. "Influence of Modulation Wavelength Induced Order in the Physical Properties of Nb/Rare Earth Superlattices", L. H. Greene, W. L. Feldman, J. M. Rowell, D.  Batlogg, R. Hull and D. B. McWhan, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 37, p. 523-7 (1985).

C11. "Microstructural Studies of Sputter-Cleaned Epitaxial Si/Si Interfaces Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, J. M. Gibson, D. C. Joy and M. E. Twigg, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Silicon MBE, Toronto, Canada (Electrochemical Soc., Pennington, NJ 1985), p.27-34 (1985).

C12. "Structural Studies of GeSi/Si Heterostructures", R. Hull, J. C.  Bean, A. T. Fiory, J. M.Gibson and N. E. Hartsough, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Silicon  MBE, Toronto, Canada (Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ), p. 376-84 (1985).

C13. "Germanium Diffusion and Strain Relaxation in Thermally-Annealed GeSi/Si(100) Multilayers", J. C. Bean, A. T. Fiory, R. Hull and R. T. Lynch, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Silicon MBE, Toronto, Canada (Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ), p. 385-99 (1985).

C14. "Trapping of Oxygen at Homoepitaxial Si-Si Interfaces Grown by Molecular  Beam Epitaxy", R. Hull, M. E. Twigg, J. C. Bean, J. M. Gibson and D. C. Joy, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 59, p. 317-22 (1986).

C15. “Influence of Oxygen Precipitates on the Solution of Transition Metals in Silicon”, E. G. Colas, E. R. Weber, R. Hull, Materials Science Forum 10-12, p. 881-6 (1986).

C16. “Implications of the Solid-Phase Amorphous to Crystalline Transformation for Shallow-Junction Processing,” D. M. Maher, T. E. Seidel, J. S. Williams, R. G. Elliman, R. V. Knoell, M. B. Ellington, R. Hull, D. C. Jacobson, Proc, of the 5th Int. Symp. on Silicon Materials Science and Technology, Boston, MA, Electrochem. Soc, Pennington, NJ, p.678-95 (1986).

C17. "Damage Removal Processes in Ion-Implanted Rapidly Annealed GaAs", D. C. Jacobson, S. J. Pearton, R. Hull, J. M. Poate and J. S. Williams, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 52, p. 361-7 (1986).

C18.  “MBE Growth of GaAs on Porous Silicon”, T. L. Lin, L. Sadwick, K. L. Wang, S. S. Rhee, Y. C. Kao, R. Hull, C. W. Nieh, D. N. Jamieson, J. K Liu, M. A. Nicolet, “Heteroepitaxy on Silicon II “ Symposium, April 1987, Anaheim, CA, Mater. Res. Soc, p.113-18 (1987).

C19. "Correlation of Structural, Chemical and Optical Properties of InGaAs Quantum Wells”, R. Hull, K. W. Carey, J. E. Fouquet, G. A. Reid, S. J. Rosner, D. Bimberg and D. Oertel, Proc. of  13th Int. Symp. on GaAs and Related Compounds, Las Vegas, NV (Institute of Physics, Bristol, England), p. 209-14 (1987).

C20. “Limited Reaction Processing: Silicon and III-V Materials”, J. F. Gibbons, S. Reynolds, C. Gronet, D. Vook, C. King, W. Opyd, S. Wilson, C. Nauka, G. Reid, R. Hull, “Rapid Thermal Processing of Electronic Materials” Symposium, April 1987, Anaheim, CA, Mater. Res. Soc, p. 281-94 (1987).

C21. “Limited Reaction Processing”, J. F. Gibbons, C. M. Gronet, J. C. Sturm, C. King, K. Williams, S. Wilson, S. Reynolds, D. Vook, M. Scott, R. Hull, C. Nauka, J. Turner, S. Laderman, G. Reid, “Beam-Solid Interactions and Transient Processes” Symposium, Dec. 1986, Boston, MA,  Mater. Res. Soc, p. 629-39 (1987).

C22. “Structural Studies of Nucleation and the Initial Stages of Growth of Epitaxial GaAs on Si(100) Substrates”, R. Hull, A. Fischer-Colbrie, S. J. Rosner, S. M. Koch, J. S. Harris, “Characterization of Defects in Materials” Symposium, Dec. 1986, Boston, MA, Mater.

Res. Soc, p. 355-60 (1987).

C23. “Study of CoSi/Si Strained Layers Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy”, Y. C. Kao, K. L. Wang, E. deFresart, R. Hull, G. Bai, D. Jamieson, M. A. Nicolet, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B5, p. 745-8 (1987).

C24. “Correlation of Optical Spectral and Atomic Scale Structure of AlInAs/GaInAs Quantum Wells”, A Juhl, D. Oertel, C.  Maczey, D. Bimberg, K. Carey, R. Hull, G.A. Reid, Superlattices and Microstructures 3, p. 205-9 (1987).

C25. "Theoretical and Experimental Description of Interface Structure”, R. Hull, K. W. Carey and G. A. Reid, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 77, p. 455-60 (1987).

C26. "Semiconductor Superlattices: Order and Disorder", R. Hull, J. E. Turner, A. Fischer-Colbrie, A. E. White, K. T. Short, S .J. Pearton and C. W. Tu, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 93, p. 153-69 (1987). - Invited

C27. "Nucleation of GaAs on Vicinal Si(100) Surfaces", R. Hull, A. Fischer-Colbrie, S. J. Rosner, S. M. Koch and J. S. Harris, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 94, p. 25-32 (1987).

C28. "Relationship Between Substrate Cleaning, Surface Structure and Nucleation Phenomena in Heteroepitaxial Growth on Si," by R. Hull, J. C. Bean, R. Leibenguth, S. M. Koch and J. S. Harris, Jr., Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. on Si MBE, Hawaii, Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ 1988, p. 293-300 (1988).

C29. "Growth and Characterization of AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs Pseudomorphic Structures", A. Fischer-Colbrie, R. Hull, S. S. Laderman, J. N. Miller and S. J. Rosner, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A6, p. 620-4 (1988).

C30. "Heteronucleation Onto Si Surfaces", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, N. Chand, R. E. Leibenguth, D. Bahnck, S. M. Koch and J. S. Harris, Jr., Proc. of Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. on “Epitaxy of Semiconductor Layered Structures” 102, p. 455-60 (1988).

C31. "Synthesis of Buried Silicon Compounds Using Ion Implantation", A. E. White, K. T. Short, R. C. Dynes, J. M. Gibson and R. Hull, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 107, p. 3-15 (1988).

C32. "Heteronucleation and Growth on Si Surfaces by Molecular Beam Epitaxy", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, S. M. Koch and J. S. Harris, Jr., Proc. of AIME/TMS Symp. on Interfaces & Dislocations in Semiconductors, The Metallurgical Society, Warrington, PA 1988, p. 77-87. - Invited

C33. "Propagation of Dislocations Through GeSi/Si Strained Layers and Superlattices", R. Hull, J. C. Bean and R. E. Leibenguth, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 116, p. 505 (1988).

C34. "GaAs/Si Nucleation and Buffer Layer Growth", S. M. Koch, R. Hull, S. J. Rosner and J. S. Harris, Jr. Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 116, p. 111 (1988).

C35. “Mesotaxy: Synthesis of Buried Single-Crystal Silicide Layers by Implantation", A. E. White, J. M. Vandenberg, K. T. Short,  R. Hull and R. C. Dynes, Nucl. Inst. and Meth. B39, p. 253-8 (1989).

C36. "In-Situ Electron Microscope Studies of Misfit Dislocation Introduction Into GexSi1-x/Si Heterostructures", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, D. Bahnck, J. M. Bonar and C. Buescher, Proc. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Evaluation of Advanced Semiconductor Materials by Electron Microscopy”, p. 381-94 (Plenum Press, NY 1989). - Invited

C37. "Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Strain Relaxation in GexSi1-x/Si(100) Heteroepitaxy", R. Hull, J. C. Bean and D. Bahnck, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 148, p. 309-14 (1989).

C38. "Strain Relaxation Phenomena in GexSi1-x/Si Strained Structures”, R. Hull, J. C. Bean, D. J. Eaglesham, J. M. Bonar and C. Buescher, Thin Solid Films 183, p. 117-32 (1989). - Invited

C39. "Optical properties of Strained Ge-Si Superlattices Grown on (001) Ge”, T. P. Pearsall, J. C. Bean, R. Hull and J. M. Bonar, Thin Solid Films 183, p. 9-16 (1989).

C40. “Characterisation of InGaAs Strained Layers on GaAs: Comparison of Dislocation Densities with Device Performance”, J. F. Walker, J. M. Bonar, R.  Hull, R. J. Malik, R. W. Ryan, Proceedings of the SPIE, International Society for Optical Engineering, 1285, p. 122-31(1990).

C41. "Structural and Electronic Properties of GaAs/InGaAs/GaAs Heterostructures", J. M. Bonar, R. Hull, R. J. Malik, R. W. Ryan and J. F. Walker, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 117, p. 23-28 (1990).

C42. "Kinetic Barriers to Strain Relaxation in GexSi1-x/Si Epitaxy," by R. Hull and J. C. Bean, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 160, p. 23-34 (1990).  - Invited

C43. "Interface Structure and Layer Synthesis Modes in Mesotaxial Si/CoSi2/Si Structures", R. Hull, Y. F. Hsieh, K. T. Short, A. E. White and D. Cherns, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 183, p. 91-102 (1990). - Invited

C44. "Strain Relaxation Mechanisms in Lattice-Mismatched Epitaxy", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, J. M. Bonar and L. Peticolas, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 198, p. 459-470 (1990). - Invited

C45. "Growth of GexSi1-x/Si Alloys on Si(100), (110) and (111) Surfaces", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, L. Peticolas, Y. H. Xie and Y. F. Hsieh, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 220, p. 153-9 (1991).

C46. "Exploiting Si/CoSi2/Si Heterostructures Grown by Mesotaxy," A. E. White, K. T. Short, K. Maex, R. Hull, Y. F. Hsieh, S. A. Audet, K. W. Goosen, D. C. Jacobson and J. M. Poate, Nucl. Inst. and Meth. B 59, p. 693-7 (1991).

C47. "Interface Characterization of XUV Multilayer Reflectors using HRTEM and X-Ray and XUV Reflectance", D. L. Windt, R. Hull and W. K. Waskiewicz, SPIE Proc. 1343, pg. 292-308 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA 1991).

C48. "Dynamic Observations of Misfit Dislocations in Strained Layer Heterostructures", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, D. Bahnck, J. M. Bonar and L. J. Peticolas, Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials (Institute of Physics, Bristol, England 1991). - Invited

C49. "The Roles of Stress, Geometry and Orientation in Misfit Dislocation Energetics and Kinetics in Epitaxial Strained Layers", R. Hull, J. C. Bean, F. Ross, D. Bahnck and L. J. Peticolas, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 239, p. 739 (1992). - Invited

C50. “Reduced Amorphization of Ion-Milled Silicon Cross-Section Transmission Electron Microscope Samples by Dynamic Annealing During Milling”, D. Bahnck, R. Hull, “Specimen Preparation for Transmission Electron Microscopy of Materials - III “ Symposium, Dec. 1991, Boston, MA, Mater. Res. Soc, p. 249-56 (1992).

C51. “MBE Growth of (GaAs)mAlAs)n Short-Period Superlattices and their Application in Fabricating Visible Lasers”, N. Chand, N. K. Dutta, J. Lopata, R. Hull, M. Geva,                                 Proceedings of the SPIE, International Society for Optical Engineering 1676, p. 145-51 (1992).

C52. “In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Measurements of the Electrical and Structural Properties of Strained Layer GeSi/Si p-n Junctions”, F. M. Ross, R. Hull, D. Bahnck, J. C. Bean, L. J. Peticolas, R. A. Hamm, H. A. Huggins, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B10, p. 2008-12 (1992)

C53. “Evolution of Buried Compound Layers Formed by Ion Implantation”, A. E. White, K. T. Short, Y. F. Hsieh, R. Hull, Materials Science & Engineering B12, p. 107-14 (1992).

C54. “Lasing in Lower-Dimensional Structures Formed by Cleaved Edge Overgrowth”, W. Wegscheider, L. Pfeiffer, M. Dignam, A. Pinzcuk, K. West, R. Hull, Semiconductor Science and Technology 9, p. 1933-8 (1994).

C55. ”Stimulated Emission in Quantum Wires Fabricated by Cleaved Edge Overgrowth”, W. Wegscheider, M. Dignam, A. Pinzcuk, K. West, R. Hull, Proceedings of the SPI International Society for Optical Engineering 2139, p. 198-205 (1994).

C56. "MBE Growth of Quantum Wire Structures on Top of Sharp Ridges Using a Mesa-Patterned Substrate", S. Koshiba, H. Noge, Y. Nakamura, H. Akiyama, T. Inoshita, H. Ichinose, K. Wada, R. Hull and H. Sakaki, Springer Series in Materials Science 31, p.213-7 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).

C57. "Single Mode Stimulated Emission in a Quantum Wire Laser Fabricated by Cleaved Edge Overgrowth", L. Pfeiffer, W. Wegscheider, M. Dignam, A. Pinczuk, K. West and R. Hull, Springer Series in Materials Science 31, p.171-80 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).

C58. "Nano-Scale Imaging of Compositional, Defect and Dopant Distributions in Semiconductor Laser Heterostructures", R. Hull, M. Moore, D. Bahnck, M. Geva, R. F. Karlicek, F.A. Stevie and J.F. Walker, Proceedings of Symposium on Nondestructive Wafer Characterization for Compound Semiconductor Materials, Electrochemical Society Meeting, Reno, NV, May 1995, p. 23-38 (1995). - Invited

C59. "Localized Strain Characterization in Semiconductor Structures using Electron Diffraction Contrast Imaging", K. Janssens, O. Van der Biest, J. Vanhellemont, H. Maes, R. Hull and J. Bean, Proc. of 1st International Conference on Materials in Microelectronics, Barcelona, Spain. Materials Science and Technology 11, p. 66-71 (1995).

C60. "Observation of Strong Transmission Electron Microscope Contrast from Doped Layers in InP-based Structures", R. Hull, M. Moore, D. Bahnck, M. Geva, R. F. Karlicek, F. A. Stevie and J. F. Walker, Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials, Oxford, England, March 1995, p. 613-16 (1995).

C61 “Electron Holography of p-n Junctions”, M. R. McCartney, B. Frost, R. Hull, M. R. Scheinfein, D. J. Smith, E. Voelkl, Electron Holography, Proceedings of the International Workshop on Electron Holography, Aug. 1994, Knoxville, TN, p. 189-98 (1995). 

C62. “Island Formation in Ge/Si Epitaxy”, D. J. Eaglesham, R. Hull, Materials Science & Engineering B30, p. 197-200 (1995).

C63. “Kinetic Roughness in Epitaxy (Experimental)”, M. A. Cotta, R. A. Hamm, S. N. G. Chu, L. R. Harriott, H. Temkin, Materials Science & Engineering B30, p. 137-42 (1995).

C64. "Microstructural Evaluation of Optical Materials and Devices Using a Combination of    Focused Ion Beam Sputtering and Transmission Electron Microscopy", R. Hull, Optical Materials 6, p. 1-11 (1996). - Invited

C65. “Nanoscale Mapping of Dopant Distributions in InP Current Blocking Layers” (Invited), R. Hull, M. V. Moore and J. F. Walker, Proc. 9th International Conference on Semiconducting and Semi-Insulating Materials, Toulouse, France, May 1996, p. 133-140 (1996). - Invited

C66. “Selective Oxidation of Buried AlGaAs for Fabrication of Vertical Cavity Lasers”, K. D. Choquette, K. M. Geib, H. C. Chui, H. Hou and R. Hull, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. Symposium on Compound Semiconductor Electronics and Photonics, San Francisco, CA, April 1996, p. 53-61 (1996).

C67. “Suppression of Boron Outdiffusion in SiGe HBTs by Carbon Incorporation”, L. D. Lanzerotti, J. C. Sturm, E.A. Stach, R. Hull, T. Buyuklimanli and C. Magee, Proc. IEEE International Electron Device Meeting, San Francisco, CA 1996, p. 390-1 (1996).

C68. “Luminescence Characteristics of InAlP-InGaP Heterostructures Having Native-Oxide Windows”, M. R. Islam, R. D. Dupuis, A. L. Holmes, A. P. Curtis, N. F. Gardner, G. E. Stillman, J. E. Baker and R. Hull, J. Cryst. Growth 170, p. 413-7 (1997).

C69. "A New Method for Nanoscale Dopant Mapping in Semiconductors Using Combined Transmission Electron Microscopy/Focused Ion Beam Techniques”, R. Hull, M. V. Moore and J. F. Walker, Proc. 4th Int. Workshop on Ultra-Shallow Junctions, Raleigh, NC, April 1997, p. 62.1-7. (1997).

C70. “A Study of Mixed Group-V Nitrides Grown by Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy using a N Radical Beam Source”, W. Bi, C. Tu, D. Mathes and R. Hull, Fall Meeting of Materials Research Society, Boston, MA, Dec 1996, Proc. on III-V Nitrides, p. 203-208 (1997).

C71. “Cavity structures for low loss oxide-confined VCSELs”, K.D. Choquette, G.R. Hadley, W. W. Chow, H. Q. Hou, K. M. Geib, B. E. Hammons, D. Mathes and R. Hull, Proc. SPIE 3003, p. 194-200 (1997).

C72. “Suppression of Boron Transient Enhanced Diffusion in Sige Hbts by Carbon Incorporation”, L. D. Lanzerotti, J. C. Sturm, E. A. Stach, R. Hull, T. Buyuklimanli and C. Magee, Proc. 1997 MRS Symposium on “Defects and Diffusion in Si Processing”, p. 297-302 (1997).

C73. “New Techniques for the Nanostructural Characterization of Semiconductor Materials and Devices Using Combined Focused Ion Beam and Transmission Electron Microscopy Techniques”, R. Hull and D. Dunn, Proc. 1998 MRS Symposium on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials, Mat. Res. Soc. Proc. 524, 141-151 (1998). - Invited

C74 “Nanoscale Characterization of defects and dopants in semiconductors: the transmission electron microscope as an in-situ laboratory for electronic materials research", R. Hull, Proc. of International Conference on Physics of Semiconductor Devices, Delhi, India, Dec. 1997, p. 1093-8 - Invited

C75 “In-situ Studies of the Interaction of Dislocations with Point Defects During Annealing of Ion Implanted Si / SiGe / Si (001) Heterostructures”, E. A. Stach, R. Hull, J. C. Bean, K. S. Jones, and A. Nejim, Microscopy and Microanalysis, 4, 294-307 (1998)

C76 “Applications of In-Situ Electron and Ion Microscopy to the Study of Electronic Materials and Devices”, R. Hull, J. Demarast, D. Dunn, Y. Quan and E. A. Stach,  Microscopy and Microanalysis 4, 308-316 (1998) - Invited

C77 "Growth and structure of barrier layer and interconnect films: X-Ray reflectance, AFM and TEM experiments", D.L. Windt, F.H. Baumann, J. Dalla Torre, G.H. Gilmer, P.L. O'Sullivan, J. Sapjeta, R. Hull and D.N. Dunn, Proceedings of Materials Research Society Symposium on "Polycrystalline Metal and Magnetic Thin Films", April, 1999

C78 “Quantitative experimental determination of the effect of dislocation-dislocation interactions on strain relaxation in lattice mismatched heterostructures”; Stach EA, Hull R, Tromp RM, Ross FM, Reuter MC, Bean JC.  III-V and IV-IV Materials and Processing Challenges for Highly Integrated Microelectronics and Optoelectronics. Symposium. Materials Res. Soc. 1999, pp.15-20. Warrendale, PA, USA.

C79 “Development of a Nanoscale Printing Technology For Planar And Curved Surfaces”, R. Hull and D. Longo, Proc. Int. Workshop on Semiconductor Devices, Delhi, India, Dec. 1999, pp. 974-81 - Invited

C80 “Growth and structure of metallic barrier layer and interconnect films. I. Experiments” Windt DL, Torre JD, Gilmer GH, Sapjeta J, Kalyanaraman R, Baumann FH, O'Sullivan PL, Dunn D, Hull R, Polycrystalline Metal and Magnetic Thin Films Symposium (Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Vol. 562). Mater. Res. Soc. 1999, pp.263-8. Warrendale, PA, USA.

C81 “InP and InAlP self-assembled quantum dots grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition”, Ryou J-H, Dupuis RD, Reddy CV, Narayanamurti V, Mathes DT, Hull R,  Conference Proceedings. 2000 International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials IEEE. 2000, pp.223-6. Piscataway, NJ, USA.

C82 “Development of Induced Crystallization as a Pattern Transfer Mechanism for Nanofabrication”, T. Chraska, M.J. Cabral, S. Mesarovic, D.M. Longo, E.A. Stach, J.C. Bean, and R. Hull, Materials Research Society Symposium, in press

Invited talks at National / International Conferences

(Only talks for which I was the primary or sole author are listed)

I1. "Defects in semiconductor superlattices", Gordon Conference on Point Defects and Interfaces  in Solids, New Hampshire, Jul. 1985

I2. "Semiconductor Superlattices: Order and Disorder", Materials Research Society Meeting, Anaheim, CA, April 1987

I3. "Nucleation and Growth Phenomena in Lattice-Mismatched Heteroepitaxy on Silicon", TMS-AIME Symposium on Dislocations and Interfaces in Semiconductors, Phoenix, AZ Jan 1988

I4. "In-Situ Studies of Misfit Defect Introduction into GexSi1-x/Si(100) Heterostructures", NATO Workshop, Bristol, England, Sep. 1988

I5. "Structure and Dislocations in GexSi1-x Strained Layers", American Physical Society Meeting, St. Louis, MO, Mar. 1989

I6. "In-situ electron Microscope Studies of Misfit Dislocations in GexSi1-x Heterostructures", Electronic Materials Conference, Cambridge, MA, May 1989 

I7. "In-situ Electron Microscope Studies of Lattice Mismatch Relaxation in GexSi1-x/Si Heterostructures", 3rd Int. Symp. on Si MBE, Strasbourg, France, May 1989

I8. "In-situ Electron Microscope Observations of Strain Relaxation in Ge(x)Si(1-x)/Si Heterostructures", Gordon Research Conference on Thin Films, Plymouth, New Hampshire, July 1989

I9. "In-situ TEM Observations of Mesotaxial Silicide Formation in the CoSi2/Si System", Electron Microscopy Society of America Meeting, San Antonio, TX, Aug. 1989

I10. "In-situ Electron Microscope Studies of Elastic Strain Relaxation", Metallurgical Society Meeting, Indianapolis, In, Oct 1989.

I11. "Experimental studies of Kinetic Effects in Strained Layer Epitaxy", Materials Research Society Meeting, Boston, MA, Nov. 1989

I12. "In-situ Electron Microscope Observations of Relaxation Modes in GeSi/Si Strained Layers", Conference on Physics and Chemistry of Semiconductor Interfaces, Fort Lauderdale, Fl, Jan. 1990

I13. "Dislocation Structures in GeSi Alloys", TMS Meeting, Anaheim, CA, Feb 1990

I14. "Kinetic Effects in Relaxation of Compound and Elemental Semiconductor Strained Layers", Materials Research Society Meeting, San Francisco, CA, April 1990

I15. "High Resolution Electron Microscopy of Interfaces and Defects in Mesotaxial CoSi2/Si Structures", Materials Research Society Meeting, San Francisco, CA, April 1990

I16. "Strained Semiconductor Thin Films", DARPA Workshop on Nanostructures, San Diego, CA, July 1990

I17. "In-situ TEM studies of Kinetic Strained Layer Relaxation Effects", Int. Meeting on Electron Microscopy of Semiconductors, Oxford, England, April 1991

I18. "Misfit Dislocation Energetics and Kinetics in  Lattice-Mismatched Epitaxial Layers", TMS Meeting, Cincinnati, OH, Oct. 1991

I19. "The Role of Stress,  Geometry and Orientation in Misfit Dislocation Energetics and Kinetics in Epitaxial Strained Layers", Fall Materials Research Society Meeting, Boston, MA, Nov. 1991

I20. "Interfacial Structure and Evolution in Mesotaxial  Si/CoSi2/Si Heterostructures", Fall Materials Research Society Meeting, Boston, MA, Nov. 1991

I21. "Quantification of Interface Structure by High Resolution Electron Microscopy in X-Ray Multilayer Mirror structures", SPIE Meeting on X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Jackson Hole, WY, Mar. 1992

I22. "Physics of Misfit Dislocation Generation in Strained Epitaxial Layers", Gordon Research Conference on Point and Line Defects in Semiconductors, Plymouth, NH, July 1992

I23. "Misfit Dislocations in Epitaxial Films", Int. Conf. on Dislocations in Semiconductors, Holzau, Germany, Aug. 1992

I24. "In-situ  TEM of Dynamic Dislocation Phenomena in Strained Epitaxial layers", Electron Microscopy Society of America Meeting, Boston, MA, Aug. 1992

I25.  "Kinetic and Processing Considerations in Strained Layer Epitaxy", Electrochemical Society Meeting, Honolulu, HA, May 1993

I26.  "Dynamics of Strain Relaxation in Lattice-Mismatched Epitaxy", Australian Condensed Matter Physics Conference, Wagga Wagga, Australia, February 1993.

I27. International  Workshop on the Mechanics of Interfaces, Trieste, Italy, August 1993 (4 lectures)

I28. "In-situ TEM of GeSi/Si Structures", Gettering and Defect Engineering in Semiconductor Technology", Frankfurt-Oder, Germany, Oct. 1993

I29. "Dislocations in Strained Layer Epitaxy", IBM-ONR Workshop on Thin Film Microstructure, Poughkeeepsie, NY, Oct. 1993

I30. "The Correlations between Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Defects in Strained Layer Materials", American Physical Society, Pittsburgh, PA, Mar. 1994

I31. "The Relationship between Strain, Defects and Electronic Device Performance in Lattice-Mismatched Heteroepitaxy", Materials Research Society Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Apr. 1995

I32. "Nano-Scale Imaging of Compositional, Defect and Dopant Distributions in Semiconductor Laser Heterostructures", Electrochemical Society Meeting, Reno, NV, May 1995

I33. “GeSi: Structure and Strain relief (3 lectures)”, NATO Workshop on GeSi,  Erice, Sicily 07/95

I34. "Techniques for Nanometer-Scale Characterization of Growth, Doping and Diffusion in InP-Based Materials and Devices",  1st International Conference on Materials in Optoelectronics, Sheffield, England, Aug. 1995

I35. "Dynamic Structural, Electrical and Optical Degradation Mechanisms in Semiconductor Heterostructures Observed In-Situ in the TEM", Materials Research Society Meeting, Boston, Nov. 1995

I36. “Nanoscale Mapping of Dopant Distributions in InP Current Blocking Layers, IEE. 9th International Conference on Semiconducting and Semi-Insulating Materials, Toulouse, France, May 1996

I37. “Real-Time Studies of Strain Relaxation Mechanisms in Semiconductor Heterostructures” Scanning Microscopy International Meeting, Bethesda, MD, June 1996

I38. ”The Transmission Electron Microscope as an In-Situ Laboratory for Semiconductor Materials Research", International Conference on Advanced Materials, Cancun, Mexico, Sep. 1996

I39. “Combined Focused Ion Beam - Transmission Electron Microscopy Techniques for Mapping Dopant Distributions in Semiconductors”, AVS Symposium on Thin Films, Orlando, FL, Feb 1997.

I40.  “Applications of Focused Ion Beams to Nanoscale Materials Analysis of Electronic Materials”, Scanning Microscopy International Conference, Chicago, IL, May 1997

I41. “In-Situ Electron Microscope Studies of  Strain Relaxation Processes in the GeSi/Si System”, International Conference on Silicon Heterostructures, Barga, Italy, Sep. 1997

I42.  “Nanoscale Characterization of Defects and Dopants in Semiconductors : The Transmission Electron Microscope as an In-Situ Laboratory for Semiconductor Materials Research”, Ninth International Workshop on Physics of Semiconductor Devices, Delhi, India, Dec. 1997

I43.  “In-Situ Electron Microscope Studies of Electronic Materials and Devices”, ASU Workshop on In-Situ Electron Microscopy, Scottsdale, AZ, Jan. 1998

I44.  “Predictive Simulation of Strain relaxation in Semiconductor Thin Films”, AVS Symposium on Thin Films, Orlando, FL, Feb 1998.

I45. “Nanoscale Imaging of Dopants in Semiconductors”, Materials Research Society Meeting, San Francisco, CA, April 1998

I46. "New directions for electron and ion beam characterization of electronic materials and devices", International Conference on Electron Microscopy, Cancun, Sep 1998

I47. “Interactions between Dislocations and Point, Line and Planar Defects in Semiconductors”, International Conference on Dislocations in Semiconductors, Warsaw, Poland, Sep. 1998

I48.  “New capabilities for microstrucural characterization using precision focused ion beam membranes in the transmission electron microscope”, Microscopy Society of America, Portland, OR, Aug 1999

I49. “In-Situ Tem Application Of Thermal, Mechanical, Electrical And Optical Stresses To Dislocations In Semiconductor Heterostructures”, Fall Materials Research Society Meeting, Boston, Nov 1999

I50. “Development of a Nanoscale Printing Technology For Planar And Curved Surfaces”, R. Hull and D. Longo, Int. Workshop on Semiconductor Devices, Plenary Talk Delhi, India, Dec. 1999

I51. “New Techniques For Detailed Measurement And Fundamental Understanding Of Polycrystalline Thin Films”, Spring Materials Research Society Meeting, San Francisco, April 2000

I52.  “Nanoprinting of Planar and Curved Surfaces”, Int. Conf. On Thin Film and Surface Magnetism, Natal, Brazil, Aug 2000

I53. “Dislocation Dynamics in Strained Epitaxial Films”, TMS Meeting, St. Loius MO, Oct 2000

I54. “In-Situ Application of Thermal, Mechanical, Electrical and Optical Stresses to Semiconductor Structures in the Transmission Electron Microscope” US-Japan Workshop on In-Situ Electron Microscopy, Kyoto, Japan, Nov 2000

I55. “Dislocation – Defect Interactions in Semiconductor Thin Films”, Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 2001, Oxford, England, March 2000

I56. “Nanoscale Studies Of Stress Distributions, Defects And Microstructural Degradation Modes In Semiconductor Devices”, Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, San Francisco CA, April 2001

I57. “Nanoscale Engineering and Characterization of Surfaces Using Focused Ion Beams”, European Materials Research Society Meeting, Strasbourg, France, June 2001

I58.  “In-Situ Electron Microscope Observations of the Evolution of Semiconductor Microstructures”, International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies, Singapore, July 2001

I59. “Nanoscale Tomographic Reconstructions using Focused Ion Beam Imaging and Spectroscopy”, Microscopy and Microanalysis 2001, Long Beach, CA, Aug 2001

I60.  “Novel Techniques for Nanoscale Fabrication and Characterization  of Surfaces by Gallium Focused Ion Beams”, Plenary Talk, Georgia Tech. Nanotechnology Conference, Sep 2001

Other Invited Seminars

1984: Cornell University, North Californian Society for Electron Microscopy, Brown University

1985: Harvard University, IBM, Illinois University, Hewlett Packard, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, UCLA

1986: West Coast Microbeam Analysis Society, Xerox PARC, Hughes Research Laboratories, UCLA

1987: Lockheed, Arizona State University

1988: IBM, Bellcore, Sandia National Laboratories

1989: Arizona State University Winter School, Princeton University, Naval Research Laboratories, Ohio State University, Brown University, University of Pennsylvania

1990: Arizona State University Winter School, University of Michigan, Case Western Reserve University,

1991: Arizona State University Winter School, NIST Workshop, Rennselaer Polytechnic Institute

1992: Arizona State University Winter School, North Carolina State University, Dartmouth College, University of Virginia, University of Gottingen, Max Planck Institute Stuttgart, University of Cologne, Los Alamos Workshop;

1993: University of Tokyo; Tokyo Institute of Technology; Tohuku University, Sendai; University of Kyoto; NEC Fundamental Research Laboratories; Mitsibushi Central Research Laboratories; Hokkaido University; NTT Research Laboratories; University of Sydney; University of New South Wales; Australian National University.

1994: Arizona State University Winter School, Philips North America Laboratories, U. Delaware, U. Washington, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories.

1995: Arizona State University Winter School, Philips Laboratories, Sandia

1996: IBM Yorktown Heights, Princeton, Harvard, Texas Instruments, Sandia, UVA

1997: Arizona State University Winter School, DARPA Workshop

1998: Arizona State University Winter School, Ohio State, Technion, IEEE Silicon Valley

1999: Arizona State University Winter School, DARPA Thin Films Workshop, Brown University

2000: University of Virginia, Arizona State University, Purdue University, Naval Research Laboratory, IBM Almaden Research Center, Argonne National laboratory, University of Michigan, IBM Yorktown Heights, Virginia Tech, University of Pittsburgh, University of Lund, University of Oxford.

2001: Arizona State University Winter School, SUNY Albany, MPI Stuttgart, Noter Dame University, Arizona Satte University.

Research Synopsis

During my research career, I have worked on a broad range of materials systems.  A unifying theme of my research has been the fundamental understanding of microstructure – property relationships, with emphasis on crystalline defects, interfaces and epitaxial structures.  In particular, I have concentrated upon the development of new nano-scale electron and ion microscopy techniques for both the characterization and fabrication of electronic materials systems.

My PhD thesis work concentrated upon understanding relationships between microstructure and ionic conduction mechanisms in a family of ceramic superionic conductors known as beta-aluminas, which at the time were leading candidates for solid state electrolytes in advanced battery designs.  In this work, I provided broad new insight into defect microstructures in these materials, and into the relationship of these microstructures with the observed degradation of ionic conductivity during operation of these materials as electrolytes.  I also discovered a range of new structural polytypes and superlattice structures in these materials.

During my decade at Bell Laboratories, my research concentrated on the properties of defects and interfaces in lattice-mismatched semiconductor heterostructures.  Using in-situ electron microscopy techniques, I did the pioneering work in understanding kinetic processes during injection of misfit dislocations into semiconductor heterostructures, and provided the first detailed experimental measurements and broad theoretical framework of these processes.  Aspects of this work included direct experimental observation and quantification of dislocation motion in epitaxial semiconductors, new insights into the fundamental mechanisms of kink nulceation and migration in dislocations, experimental and theoretical analysis of dislocation nucleation mechanisms and dislocation interactions, quantification of electrical activity of misfit dislocations, dislocation-impurity interactions, and dislocation dissociation reactions.  This work had ramifications from fundamental mechanisms of dislocation motion in semiconductors, through the fundamental science of epitaxial growth to practical applications for heterostructure design.  It has been recognized by dozens of invited talks at national and international conferences over a broad range of disciplines.

Other materials systems I concentrated on at Bell Laboratories included the microscopic mechanisms of nucleation and growth of buried metal silicide layers formed by high energy ion implantation, correlations of interfacial structure with reflectivity in X-Ray mirror structures, and determination of interfacial atomic structure in a range of systems.  I also developed new focused ion beam and electron microscopy techniques to enable broad new capabilities for structure-property correlations in electronic and optoelectronic devices.  These studies provided new insight into device properties and degradation modes in infra-red semiconductor laser diodes.  They also provided the basis for discovery of an entirely new method for nanoscale mapping of dopant distributions in semiconductor heterostructures, based upon a subtle interplay of electron and ion beam-induced material modification mechanisms.

Since moving to the University of Virginia almost seven years ago, the research in my group has again encompassed a broad range of materials systems, but with an emphasis on the broad field of electronic materials.  One central theme has been continued work into the fundamental mechanisms of defect injection and strain relief in semiconductor heteroepitaxy. A highlight of this work has been observations of dislocation injection during the growth of strained semiconductor films, using a unique UHV-CVD transmission electron microscope, in collaboration with Frances Ross’s and Ruud Tromp’s group at IBM.  This work has provided entirely new insight into dislocation-surface and dislocation-dislocation interactions.   We have recently extended this work through an additional major (~$1 million) award from the National Science Foundation to a team I am leading, where the theme of the research will be quantitative comparison and modeling of competitive strain relief through dislocation injection and morphological evolution

Another theme of my group’s research has been the development of a broad range of techniques for in-situ observations of dynamic processes in the transmission electron microscope.  We have designed a series of specimen stages that enable heat, electrical field and current, mechanical strain, mechanical indentation, and optical flux to be applied in-situ in the TEM.  These techniques have found applications spanning from understanding fundamental mechanisms of dislocation motion, through electrical and optical studies of defects and materials degradation modes in electronic and optoelectronic devices, to fundamental modeling, measurement and understanding of stress distributions, plasticity and failure mechanisms.

The focused ion beam is another central tool in my group’s research.  We have used this instrument to develop new tomographic imaging techniques with approximately 30 nm lateral and vertical resolution, and as many as 107 individual volume elements.  We have recently installed a secondary ion mass spectrometer onto the FIB system, which enables SIMS analysis at 30 nm resolution, and extends our tomographic reconstruction techniques to the mapping of three dimensional nano-scale chemical relationships.  Sensitivity with primary Ga+ ions, however, is relatively low for many elements, and we are exploring a range of techniques to enhance this sensitivity, including introducing oxygen and other reactive ionic species, and post-sputtering ionization by electrons or photons.

We also use the focused ion beam system as a very powerful nanofabrication system, either by direct sputtering, or by dissociation of organic vapors introduced above the sample region for metal or insulator deposition.  These techniques offer unparalleled capabilities for rapid patterning of nano-scaled and micro-scaled structures, over almost the entire range of organic materials, and over virtually any surface geometry.  One application of these techniques is for rapid prototyping of different length scale and aspect ratio patterns in SiO2 layers, for subsequent deposition of thin Ti and TiN films.  This is part of an NSF-DARPA sponsored project on “Virtual Integrated Prototyping”.  Other aspects of our work in this program include development of fundamental understanding of nucleation and coalescence phenomena using in-situ Ti deposition in the IBM UHV-TEM previously described, and new TEM techniques for rapid characterization of grain orientations and dimensions.  The goal of this work is thus to help develop a fundamental understanding of the nucleation and growth of ultra-thin polycrystalline metal films.  Another FIB nanofabrication program in my group is a recent large DARPA grant to develop nanoscale “printheads” for contact lithography over curved surfaces.  This program, for which I am PI, consists of a team of collaborators in Materials Science, Electrical Engineering and Physics that I assembled, and involves $2.7 million of funding over four years.  The major components of the program are large area and depth-of-focus ion lithography, fundamental understanding of contact printing mechanisms (imprinting, local crystallization and transfer of organic “masks”), and nanoscale positioning and registration techniques.  We have demonstrated the capability for rapid sequential printing of patterns containing up to 106 elements with feature sizes down to 100 nm onto both planar and curved surfaces.

In 2000 I successfully assembled and led a team of ten faculty at the University of Virginia and Notre Dame through the proposal process for a major ($5 million) National Science Foundation Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC), the “Center for Nanoscopic Materials Design”.  This Center was one of only four funded out of about 100 requests for new (as opposed to re-competing) Centers in the last biannual MRSEC competition.  Our Center focuses upon the controlled, patterned assembly of semiconductor quantum dot heterostructures to explore novel electronic device architectures such as quantum cellular automata.  It will also explore assembly of other nano-structured materials (such as protein arrays and sol gels) upon templated semiconductor surfaces using an internal seed funding process to explore promising new research avenues.  Currently the Center supports about forty faculty, postdocs, graduate students and undergraduate students in its research, education and outreach programs.

Research Grants and Contract

During my seven years at UVa, I have been the Principal Investigator on well over $10 million of funded proposals, including a major National Science Foundation Center (“The Center for Nanoscopic Materials Design”).

Completed Programs

Project Title: Proposal for Purchase of Ga+ Focused Ion Beam Instrumention

Source of Support: National Science Foundation / ARI

Amount: $248,284 (Plus equal matching funds from the School of Engineering, UVa), 4 co-PIs. 

Project Period: 09/01/95-11/30/96

Location: University of Virginia

Man Months/Effort None requested

 

Project Title: Study of Materials Microstructure and Chemistry  in Laterally-Oxidized VCSEL Structures, and at Wafer-Bonding Interfaces

Source of Support: Sandia National Laboratories

Amount: $24,000

Project Period: 07/01/96-06/30/97

Location: University of Virginia

Man Months/Effort: None Requested

 

Project Title: Development of a New Technique for Nanometer-Scale Mapping of Dopant Distributions in Semiconductor Materials and Devices

Source of Support: Jeffress Foundation

Amount: $15,568, no co-PIs

Project Period: 06/01/95-05/30/96

Location: University of Virginia

Man Months/Effort None requested

 

Project Title: Application of Focussed Ion Beam/Transmission Electron Microscope to Study of Laser Degradation Mechanisms in II-VI Materials

Source of Support: Philips Laboratories

Amount: $9,633, no co-PIs

Project Period: 07/01/95-06/30/96

Location: University of Virginia

Man Months/Effort None requested

 

Project Title: Liquid Lubrication and Tribo-film Formation

Source of Support: National Science Foundation

Amount: $240,000 (D. Wilsdorf PI, R. Hull co-PI). 

Project Period: 08/01/96-03/31/99

Location: University of Virginia

Man Months/Effort: One per year

 

Project Title: Development of a Process Simulator for Plastic Relaxation in Strained Layer Semiconductor Epitaxy

Source of Support: National Science Foundation

Amount: $273, 263, no co-PIs

Project Period: 04/01/96-12/31/99

Location: University of Virginia

Man Months/Effort: One per year

Project Title: Study of Materials and Device Degradation Modes in Germanium-Silicon Based Devices and Circuits

Source of Support: IBM

Amount: $205,000, no co-PIs

Project Period: 07/01/96-09/30/99

Location: University of Virginia

Man Months/Effort: One per year

 

Project Title: Materials and Processing Research for High Performance Electronic Devices Employing III-V Compound Semiconductor Native Oxide Layers

Source of Support: NSF

Amount: $122,839 to R. Hull, co-PI (4 other PI/co-PI)

Project Period: 09/01/96-08/31/00

Location: University of Virginia

Man Months/Effort: None Requested

 

Project Title: Modelling and Simulation of Advanced Materials Processes

Source of Support: NSF/DARPA

Amount: $311,823 to R. Hull, co-PI (4 other PI/co-PI)

Project Period: 10/01/97-09/30/00

Location: University of Virginia

Man Months/Effort: One per year

 

Project Title: IBM Partnership Award

Sponsor: IBM

PI: R. Hull. no co-PIs

Amount: $99,000

Dates: 08/01/98-07/31/01

No. of  students supported: 50% of postdoc

Research Equipment: None

Release Time: None

 

Current programs

 

Project Title: Materials Microstructure and Chemistry  in Laterally-Oxidized VCSEL Structures

Source of Support: Sandia National Laboratories

Amount: $115,000, no co-PIs

Project Period: 10/01/97-09/30/01

Location: University of Virginia

Man Months/Effort: None

 

Project Title: Development of a Nanoscale Printing Technology

Sponsor: DARPA

PI: R. Hull, 6 co-PIs

Amount: $2.7 Million, R. Hull PI, 6 co-Pis

Dates: 09/01/98-08/31/02

No. of  students supported: Two students + one postdoc for PI

Research Equipment: Nanoscale positioning / registration system, TEM nanoscale positioning goniometer

Release Time: Two months per year

 

Title: Nanoscale Morphological Control of Strained Semiconductor Surfaces

Sponsor: NSF

PI and all co‑PI's: PI: R. Hull; co-PIs: J.C. Bean (UVA), J.E. Greene (UI) and R.M. Tromp (IBM)        

Dates of Contract Period: 06/01/00-05/31/03

Amount of Award: $848,440

Research Equipment: None

No. of Students Supported:

Release Time: 1 month

 

Title: The Center for Nanoscopic Materials Design (MRSEC)

Sponsor: NSF

PI and all co‑PI's: PI: R. Hull, co-PIs: J. Bean, G. Shiflet, W.C. Johnson, C. Vallas,

Dates of Contract Period: 09/01/00-08/31/05

Amount of Award: $5,000,000

Research Equipment: Extensive

No. of Students Supported: More than 20

Release Time: 2 months

 

Project Title: Semiconductor Technology Focus Research Center

Sponsor: SIA-DARPA

PI:  D.Antionadis, MIT; R. Hull, co-PI,

Amount: $441,374 to R. Hull

Dates: 04/01/00-12/03/03

Research Equipment: None

Release Time: 1.5 months per year average

                                               

Project Title: Optimization of Multi-Functional Components and Materials

Sponsor: DARPA

PI:  A.N. Evans, Princeton; R. Hull, co-PI,

Amount: $60,000 to R. Hull

Dates: 12/01/00-11/30/01

Research Equipment: None

Release Time: None

Project Title: Metallic Nanomechanical Systems

Teaching and Advising

 

Graduate Students Advised at UVa

 

Masters Students

(i) Mary Moore 10/94 - 06/96. “Transmission electron microscope imaging of dopant distributions in InP”.  Currently employed at FEI Company.

(ii) David Mathes 01/96 - 07/98.  “Oxidation of III-V Compound Semiconductors” Now completing PhD in my group

(iii) Yuan Quan 01/97 – 06/99.  “Dislocation nucleation mechanisms in strained layer epitaxy” (Now pursuing PhD at Stanford University)

(iv) Surajit Atha 09/00 – “Controlled nucleation of quantum dots in GeSi/Si heterostructures”

(v) Timothy Herlihy 06/01 -  “Development of new materials and methods for sub 100 nm micro-contact printing”

 

PhD Students

(vi) Eric Stach 01/95 - 07/98 “In-situ electron microscopy of dislocation dynamics in semiconductors”.  IBM Graduate Fellow 1997-1998.  Currently employed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories

(vii) James Demarest  09/96 – 10/01  “Modeling and measurement of nanoscale stresses in semiconductor devices”(Masters bypass) IBM Graduate Fellow 1999-2001.  Currently employed at IBM

(viii) Mark Williamson. 01/98 -  “Fundamental mechanisms of polycrystalline thin film growth”

(ix) David Longo  06/98 – 04/01 “Development of a nanoscale lithographic printing technology”  Currently employed at Finnegan, Henderson, Farabow, Garrett & Dunner, L.L.P(Patent attorneys)

(x) Alan Kubis 06/98 -  “Development of nanoscale tomographic techniques”

(xi) David Mathes 08/98 -  “Development of new electron microscopy techniques for the study of degradation mechanisms in III-V semiconductor materials and devices”

(xii) Susan Liu 07/99 – “Development of new ion lithography techniques for large area nanoscale contact printing”

(xiii) Li He 09/00 -  “Quantum dot microstructures in epitaxial compound semiconductor heterostructures”

(xiv) Jennifer Gray 09/00 – “Competition between dislocation injection and morphological evolution in strain relief mechanisms in heteroepitaxy”

(xv) Jian Li 09/01 – “Fundamental origins of stress distributions in deep sub-micron engineered structures”

(xvi) Chi Chin Wu 09/01 – “Fundamental mechanisms of strain relaxation in morphologically complex syrfaces”

Postdoctoral Fellows

(i) Derren Dunn, Postdoc 10/97 – 01/01 (Funded under NSF-DARPA program on simulation of polycrystalline thin film growth)  Currently employed at IBM

(ii) Tomas Chraska, Postdoc 05/99 – 05/01 (Funded under DARPA program on development of a nanoscale printing technology) Currently employed at Czech National Academy

(iii) Dalaver Anjum, Postdoc 10/01 – (Funded under SIA-MARCO Semiconductor Technology Focus Research Center)

 

Courses Taught

1995-1996: Fall: Electrical and Optical Properties of Materials (Undergraduate); Spring: Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Graduate).

1996-1997: Fall: Materials that Shape Civilization (Undergraduate); Spring: Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Graduate).

1997-1998: Fall: Electrical and Optical Properties of Materials (Undergraduate); Spring: Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Graduate).

1998-1999: Fall: Electrical and Optical Properties of Materials (Undergraduate); Spring: Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Graduate).

1999-2000: Fall: Electrical and Optical Properties of Materials (Undergraduate); Spring: Introduction to Materials Science (Undergraduate).

2000-2001: Spring: Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Graduate); Fall:  Electrical, Optical and Magnetic Properties of Materials (Undergraduate and Graduate)