Folklore & Folklife in Virginia, Vol. 1, 1979

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Fresh Peanuts Is The Best of All: A Street Cry From Suffolk, Virginia

"Scissors to Grind!," "Rags or Old Clothes!," "Ice!," "Cockles or Mussels, Alive, Alive-O!" -- Street cries like these were the earliest form of advertising, but they are rarely heard in our industrialized world. Thirty or forty years ago it was possible to hear them and also to find people who remembered them from an earlier time. We found an interesting street cry in Suffolk, Virginia at that time.

In the summer of 1940 my husband, Frank Warner, and I were on our way to visit friends on North Carolina's Outer Banks. In those days it took more than a day to get from New York to North Carolina and we decided to spend the night in Suffolk so that we could drive through the Dismal Swamp by daylight. As we approached Suffolk, we drove through mile after mile of peanut fields, and as we entered the city, we saw a huge sign on top of the bank building: Suffolk, Va., Peanut Capital of the World.

It was true. Suffolk was the home of the Virginia-Carolina Peanut Association and also the home of Planters Peanuts and any number of other processors of peanut butter, peanut brittle, peanut oil, and fertilizer.

We found a room for the night and went to Suffolk's Elliott Café for dinner. A tall, young black man named Bill Moss waited on our table, and before ordering we asked if he knew anybody thereabout who might remember the old-time songs. Moss thought a minute, and said that there must be somebody; "Let me call Jesse," he said. Another waiter, a very short young man named Jesse McDonald, joined us.

"These people," said Moss, "are looking for somebody around here
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who knows the old-time songs." McDonald pondered, Well, there's Uncle Joe--he knows all those old songs." Moss objected, "But you know Uncle Joe is dead!" "No," said McDonald, "He's mighty low, but he ain't dead. After some discussion, they agreed to meet us the next morning (Sunday morning) and to take us to find Uncle Joe. They did.

Since his wife had died, Uncle Joe lived with a niece, Mamie Baker, and her family, way out at the end of town in a pretty cottage with hollyhocks growing up to the roof. Bill Moss went in the house to see "how the land lay," and came out to say that although Uncle Joe was bedridden by a stroke, he would be glad to see us. So we all went in, passing through the house and the kitchen, greeting everyone getting ready for church or Sunday school. Then we went out through the dogtrot to another cottage where we found Uncle Joe lying in a big double bed.

Photo by Frank Warner     Suffolk, Virginia - 1940

  left to right:  
Bill Moss, Armise Spruille Askew, Joseph Henry Johnson, & Jesse McDonald.

[End page 69]

Joseph Henry Johnson was his name, but everyone in Suffolk called him Uncle Joe. He was an admired citizen as well as an uncommon salesman--he sold his peanuts on the streets of Suffolk to people who worked in the peanut business themselves. Uncle Joe knew his product. He raised his own peanuts, picked, parched, and packaged them. And he carried them up and down the streets in a big basket while shouting an original vending cry, for which he was famous: "Fresh peanuts is the best of all!" One line he often used, "Buy 'em and try 'em!," became the slogan of the peanut industry. Uncle Joe's vending cry went like this:

Fresh peanuts! is the best of all,
They's raised in the summer and dug in the fall.
I got fresh peanuts! one bag for a nickel,
One bag for a nickel, and two for a dime,
Three fifteen, and all of 'em mine.
If you don't think they good just buy 'em and try 'em!
Shelled by the hand, parched in the pan,
I has to sell every one if I can.
Please don't deny 'em, just step up and buy 'em,
I got fresh peanuts!
Joe Henry Johnson is my name!
Selling peanuts is my game.
I got fresh peanuts! one bag for a nickel,
One bag for a nickel, and two for a dime,
Three fifteen and all of 'em mine.
You don't think they good, just buy 'em and try 'em!
Shelled by the hand, parched in the pan,
I got to sell every one if I can.
Please don't deny 'em, Just step up and buy 'em,
I got fresh peanuts!

When people heard Uncle Joe's cry in the mid-morning or afternoon, they would leave their shops or offices or homes and go out to greet him, to buy a bag of peanuts, and to listen to his songs. Uncle Joe's real profession, he told us, was preaching the love of God. When he had gathered some people around him he would sing them the old spirituals and talk about the "good news" from the Gospel.

Frank talked to Uncle Joe for a few minutes, and sang him a verse of a song he'd learned in his childhood in Alabama:
[End page 70]

O the raccoon got a bushy tail,
The possum's tail am bare,
An' the rabbit ain't got no tail a-tall,
'Cep a little bunch of hair!
Uncle Joe grinned. He surely did know that song.

Bill Moss went out to the car for the recording machine, since Uncle Joe said he'd like to try it, and we recorded his vending cry, then his Bible Alphabet: "A is for Adam who was the first man," all the way through "Z is for Zion, the home of the blest." He also found the strength to sing three of his own songs:

The All-Seeing Eye
I trust in my God because I know it's true,
He sees everything on earth that we do,
God sitting high, way beyond the sky,
Watching with His all-seeing eye.

Nothing Seems Better to Me
There is a place where I must go,
This is the part interests me so,
I'll go on fighting for mercy so free,
Nothing seems better to me.

I Think I Hear the King When He Called Dan'l1

When Uncle Joe died several months later, the editor of the Suffolk News Herald sent us a two-page spread the paper printed about Uncle Joe, including many tributes paid to him by fellow townspeople. Joseph Henry Johnson was an important citizen in Suffolk, Virginia. And he was an important person in our lives as well.

  Anne Warner
Old Brookville, New York

[End page 71]


1 This song and the other material from Uncle Joe Johnson will be included in the Frank and Anne Warner Collection of songs and stories which is now being prepared for publication.

[End page 72]

Vernacular Architecture in Virginia: A Bibliography

Architecturally, Virginia is famous for its large 18th-century plantation houses, for Colonial Williamsburg, and for the works of Thomas Jefferson. But even a cursory glance at the landscape, without the blinders of received wisdom, reveals that these are a tiny and unrepresentative fragment of the building traditions of the state. Furthermore, even these famous buildings cannot properly be understood outside the context of ordinary Virginia buildings. It is my hope that this bibliography will be helpful to folklorists, architectural historians, geographers, and others interested in working in the state or in comparing its vernacular architecture to that of other areas. In addition, I would like to think that it will provide a point of entry for readers who had always been interested in Virginia's commonplace buildings but who have never known quite where to start.

This bibliography is an early product of a much larger project, a bibliography of vernacular architecture in North America. It is not meant to be a complete list of all of the relevant sources for the study of Virginia. In fact, it is offered in part as a request for contributions from readers who know of other items which should be included.

Though not every work listed here is consciously "about" vernacular architecture, all contain considerable information that will be of use to the student of vernacular building. One category of sources has systematically been excluded. There are many articles about individual buildings in the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography [VMHB] and in the William and Mary Quarterly [WMQ]. Most of these have a genealogical orientation, so that only the ones with specific architectural content have been included
[End page 73]
here. This is not to say that the former are not useful; readers interested in locating them should consult E.G. Swem's Virginia Historical Index (1934; rpt. Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1965). It will also be noted that I have included many archaeological reports, a source of information often overlooked by students of architecture. [Ed. note: The style of this bibliography is different from other citations in this journal but we have left it that way, believing that this style is more appropriate and useful for a bibliography of this scope.]

I. Bibliographies

I have, of course, drawn on my predecessors' work in compiling this bibliography. The following contain many additional items that will be of use for vernacular architecture studies.

Nichols, Frederick D.

    1965     "The Early Architecture of Virginia: Original Sources and Books,"
                  The American Association of Architectural Bibliographers, Papers, 1: 81-124.

    1966     "The Early Architecture of Virginia: Journals,"
                  ibid., 2: 81-113.

Pochman, Henry A. and Arthur P. Schultz

    1953     Bibliography of German Culture in America to 1940.
                  Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Roos, Frank, Jr.

    1968     Bibliography of Early American Architecture.
                  2d ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Wust, Klaus

    1970     Virginia German Bibliography.
                  Edinburg: Shenandoah History.

II. European Background

Because almost no work has been done on Afro-American architecture in Virginia, I have included background works only on the two main European groups in Virginia--the British and the Germans. These are essential for an understanding of the early vernacular architecture of the state.

Barley, M.W.

    1961     The English Farmhouse and Cottage.
                  London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

[End page 74]

Mercer, Eric

    1975     English Vernacular Houses: A Study of Traditional Farmhouses and Cottages.
                  London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Schilli, Hermann

    1977     Das Schwarzwaldhaus.
                  3d ed. Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer.

Smith, Peter

    1975     Houses of the Welsh Countryside: A Study in Historical Geography.
                  London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Weiss, Richard

    1973     Hauser und Landschaften der Schweiz.
                  2d ed. Erlenbach- Zurich: Eugen Rentsch Verlag.

The most essential book for the understanding of Virginia's Germanic houses, this work is currently being translated.

Zippelius, Adelhart

    1957     Das Bauernhaus am Untern Deutschen Niederhein.
                  Wuppertal: Verlag A. Martini and Gruttefien Gmbh.

III. Virginia Vernacular Architecture

A. Primary Sources

Primary references to buildings are scattered throughout the published and manuscript documents of Virginia's history. However, four especially valuable sources should not be overlooked. They are:

1. The surviving county records, especially the wills, probate inventories, and post-1820 land tax records. These are stored in the county clerks' offices and in the Archives Division of the Virginia State library, Richmond.

2. The pre-Civil War policies of the Mutual Assurance Society, Richmond. Microfilm copies of these are stored in the Archives of the State Library, and Xeroxed copies, with an index, may be found at the Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission [VHLC]. 221 Governor Street, Richmond.3. The library of the VHLC contains individual files on about 15,000 buildings across the state. The coverage varies in depth from one or two photographs to several dozen photographs, drawings, survey reports and copies of primary documents for each structure. These files are open to the public during business hours, 8:15 to 5:00 Monday through Friday.

4. The best single source of primary references for 17th- and 18th-century buildings are the vestry books of the Anglican parishes. The published ones are:

[End page 75]

Bell, Landon C., ed.

    1930     Cumberland Parish, Lunenburg County, Virginia. 1746-1816. Vestry Book. 1746-1816.
                  Richmond: William Byrd Press.

Chamberlayne, Churchill G., ed.

    1898     The Vestry Book and Register of Bristol Parish, Virginia, 1720-1789.
                  Richmond: privately printed. Prince George County.

    1927     The Vestry Book of Christ Church Parish. Middlesex County Virginia, 1663-1767.
                  Richmond: Old Dominion Press.

    1929     The Vestry Book of Kingston Parish, Mathews County, Virginia, 1676-1796.
                  Richmond: Old Dominion Press.

    1931     The Vestry Book of Stratton Major Parish, King and Queen County, Virginia, 1729-1783.
                  Richmond: Library Board.

    1933     The Vestry Book of Petsworth Parish, Gloucester County, Virginia,
                  Richmond: Library Board.

    1935     The Vestry Book of Blisland (Blissland) Parish, New Kent and James City
                  Counties, Virginia, 1721-1786
                  Richmond: Library Board.

    1937     The Vestry Book and Register of St. Peter's Parish, New Kent and James City Counties,
                  Virginia, 1684-1786
                  Richmond: Library Board.

    1940     The Vestry Book of St, Paul's Parish, Hanover County, Virginia, 1706-1786.
                  Richmond: Library Board.

Fife, R.H., ed.

    1966     Vestry Book of King William Parish, Virginia, 1707-1750.
                  Midlothian: Manakin Episcopal Church. Chesterfield County.

Hall, Wilmer. E., ed.

    1949     The Vestry Book of the Upper Parish, Nansemond County, Virginia, 1743-1793.
                  Richmond: Library Board of Virginia.

Mason, George C., ed.

    1949     The Colonial Vestry Book of Lynnhaven Parish, Princess Anne County, Virginia,
                  Newport News: author.

Truro Parish, Virginia

    1974     Minutes of the Vestry. Truro Parish, Virginia, 1732-1785.
                  Lorton: Pohick Church.

Walter, Alice Granberry, ed.

    1967     The Vestry Book of Elizabeth River Parish, 1749-1761.
                  New York: author.

B. Other Sources

Allyn, R.M.

    1937     "Charles City County Houses,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 17: 190.

This is a series of collections of photographs of old houses, many of which are no longer extant.

    1937     "Old Houses in New Kent County,"
                  ibid., 17: 284, 371.

    1937     "Old Houses in James City County,"
                  ibid., 17: 528.

[End page 76]

    1938     "Old Houses in James City, York, and Warwick Counties,"
                  ibid., 18: 147.

    1938     "Old Houses in Charles City, New Kent, Warwick, and Elizabeth City Counties,"
                  ibid., 18: 267.

    1938     "Old Houses in James City and King William Counties,"
                  ibid., 18: 387.

    1938     "Old Houses in King William County,"
                  ibid., 18: 531.


    1871     "The Westover Estate,"
                  Harper's New Monthly Magazine, 42 no. 252: 801-810. Charles City County.

    1913     "Smith's Fort--Rolfe House,"
                  VMHB, 21: 210. Surry County.

    1929     "Some Notes on Green Spring,"
                  VMHB, 37: 289-300. James City County.

    1930     "Galt House, Williamsburg,"
                  Architectural Record, 67: 587-590.

    1932     "Smithfield Church, 1632-52,"
                  VMHB, 40: 28. Isle of Wight County.

    1933     "Wales, Dinwiddie County, Virginia, and Dr. Hugh Mercer's Apothecary Shop,"
                  Architectural Record, 143: 69-72.

    1936     "Old Virginia Houses,"
                  American Architect, 148: 51- 58.

Anthony, Carl

    1976     "The Big House and the Slave Quarters,"
                  Landscape, 20 no. 3: 8-19; 21 no. 1: 9-15.

Bailey, Worth

    1938     "Lime Preparation at Jamestown in the Seventeenth Century,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 18: 1-12.

Barka, Norman F.

    1976     Archaeology at Flowerdew Hundred: The Stone House Foundation Site--An
                  Interim Report
                  Williamsburg: Southside Historical Sites, Inc. early 17th century; Prince George County.

Bates, Mrs. W.G.

    1971     "Lynhams,"
                  Bulletin of the Northumberland County Historical Society, 8:67-78.

Berkley, Henry J.

    1924     "Colonial Ruins, Colonial Architecture and the Brickwork of the Chesapeake Bay
                  Maryland Historical Magazine, 19: 1-10.

Binney, Marcus

    1978     "Virginia's Country Churches,"
                  Country Life, Apr 27, 1978.

Brook, Henry Irving

    1930     Colonial Churches in Virginia.
                  Richmond: Dale Press.

Brown, B.T.

    1933     "Shirley on the Royal James,"
                  Arts and Decoration, 38: 36-37.

[End page 77]

Brown, Douglas Summers

    1939     "Cedar Creek Monthly Meeting and Its Meeting House,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 19: 293-298. Hanover County.

Brown, Glenn

    1928     "Jamestown,"
                  Architectural Record, 63: 78-79.

Buchanan, Paul E.

    1976     "The Eighteenth-Century Frame Houses of Virginia,"
                  in Building Early America: Contributions Toward the History of a Great Industry,
                  ed, Charles E. Peterson. Radnor, Pa: Chilton Book Co.

Buchanan, William T., Jr. and Edward P. Heite

    1971     "The Hallowes Site: A Seventeenth-Century Yeoman's Cottage in Virginia,"
                  Historical Archaeology, 5: 38-48. Westmoreland County.

Bullock, Helen Duprey

    1931     "Kitchens in Colonial Virginia,"
                  MS at VHLC.

Bushman, Katherine G.

    1969     "Old Homes of Augusta County,"
                  Augusta Historical Bulletin, 5 no. 2: 7-20.

    1973     "Old Homes of Augusta County,"
                  ibid., 9 no 2: 41-56.

Bushman, William H. and David L. Bushman

    1975     "Brick Barns of Augusta County,"
                  Augusta Historical Bulletin, 11 no. 1: 11-14 photographs.

Campbell, Helen J.

    1961     "Porto Bello, Bruton Parish, York County, Virginia,"
                  VMHB, 69: 460-468.

Carson, Cary

    1969     "Settlement Patterns and Vernacular Architecture in Seventeenth-Century
                  Tidewater Virginia,"
                  M.A. thesis, University of Delaware.

    1974     "The 'Virginia House' in Maryland,"
                  Maryland Historical Magazine, 69: 185-196.

    1978     "Doing History with Material Culture,"
                  in Material Culture and the Study of American Life, ed. Ian M.G. Quimby.
                  New York: W. W. Norton.

Carson, Jane

    1954     "Green Spring Plantation in the 17th Century"
                  MS, Colonial Williamsburg Research Department, James City County.

Caywood, Louis R.

    1955     Green Spring Plantation: Archaeological Report.
                  Williamsburg: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corporation.

    1957     "Green Spring Plantation,"
                  VMHB, 65: 67-83.

Chandler, Joseph Everett

    1892     The Colonial Architecture of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.
                  Boston: Bates, Kimball and Guild.

[End page 78]

Chandler, J.A.C. and E.G. Swem, eds.

    1923     "Pitch and Tar in Virginia, 1704,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 3: 209-210.

Chappell, Edward A.

    1977     "Cultural Change in the Shenandoah Valley: Northern Augusta County Houses
                  Before 1861"
                  M. Arch. Hist. thesis, University of Virginia.

    n.d.       "Rhenish Houses of the Massanutten Settlement,"
                  Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, in press. Page County.

_____ and Orlando Ridout V.

    1976     "Woodlawn, Paul's Crossroads, Essex County, Virginia."
                  Unpub. report and measured drawings, University of Virginia School
                  of Architecture.

Clairborne, Herbert A.

    1957     Comments on Virginia Brickwork Before 1800.
                  Portland, Me.: Walpole Society.

Clem, Gladys B.

    1969-     "Old Homes of Augusta County,"
                  Augusta Historical Bulletin, vols. 5-.

This is a continuing series of articles on individual houses. Though oriented primarily toward the building's ownership, most of the articles have a few photographs and some architectural description.

Coffin, Lewis A. and Arthur C. Holden

    1919     Brick Architecture of the Colonial Period in Maryland and Virginia.
                  Rpt. New York: Dover Publications, 1970.

Colonial Williamsburg Foundation

    1971     Legacy from the Past: A Portfolio of Eighty-Eight Original Williamsburg
                  Williamsburg: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.

    1972     Colonial Williamsburg: Official Guidebook and Map.
                  7th ed. Williamsburg: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.

Corner, James M. and E.E. Soderholtz

    1892     Examples of Domestic Colonial Architecture in Maryland and Virginia.
                  Boston: Heliotype Printing Co. Exceptionally clear photographs.

Cotter, John L.

    1957     "Excavations at Jamestown, Virginia,"
                  Antiquity, 31: 19-24.

    1957     "Jamestown: Treasure in the Earth,"
                  Antiques, 71: 44-46.

    1957     "Rediscovering Jamestown,"
                  Archaeology, 10: 25-30.

    1958     Archaeological Excavations at Jamestown, Virginia.
                  (Archaeological Research Series No. 4.) Washington: National Park Service [NPS]

This is the standard summary of three decades of excavation by the Park Service.

_____ and J. Paul Hudson

    1957     New Discoveries at Jamestown.
                  Washington: NPS.

[End page 79]

_____ and Edward B. Jelks

    1957     "Historic Site Archeology at Jamestown,"
                  American Antiquity, 22: 387-389.

Cox, Virginia D. and Willie T. Weathers

    1973     Old Houses of King and Queen County, Virginia.
                  King and Queen: King and Queen County Historical Society.

Crowder, R.T.

    1909     "First Manor-Houses in America and Estates of the First Americans: A Journey to
                  the Historic Mansions along the York River in Gloucester County,
                  Journal of American History, 3: 283-295.

Davis, Deering, Stephen P. Dorsey, and Ralph Cole Hall

    1946     Alexandria Houses, 1750-1830.
                  New York: Bonanza Books.

Davis, Margaret

    1936     "Tidewater Churches,"
                  South Atlantic Quarterly, 35: 86-87.

Dawson, Roger R.

    1969     "Greenway Court and White Post: Virginia Home of Thomas, Lord Fairfax,"
                  Pioneer America [PA], 1 no. 1: 33-39. Clarke County.

Dimmick, Jesse

    1929     "Green Spring,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser. 9: 129-130. James City County.

Donovan, Jerry

    1950     "John Jordan, Virginia Builder,"
                  Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians [JSAH], 9 no. 3: 17-19.

Douglas, Henry H.

    1970     "The Aleshire-Schaeffer Farm, Page County, Virginia,"
                  PA, 2 no. 2: 35-45.

    1974     "Buckland Tavern,"
                  Echoes of History, 4 no. 2. Prince William County.

Dove, Vee

    1975     Madison County Homes: A Collection of Pre-Civil War Homes and Family
                  Madison: author.

Duhamel, J.F.

    1935     "Belvoir,"
                  Columbia Historical Society Records, 35-36: 146-153. Fairfax County.

Dulaney, Paul S.

    1968     The Architecture of Historic Richmond.
                  Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

Embury, Aymar II

1911-12     "Early American Churches,"
                  Architectural Record, 30: 584-596; 31: 153-161; 32: 453-463.

    1921     "Comparative Study of a Group of Early American Doorways,"
                  White Pine Series of Architectural Monographs [WPS], 7: 3-14.

    1921     "Comparative Study of a Group of Early American Porches,"
                  WPS, 7: 3-14.

[End page 80]

    1930     Comparative Study of a Group of Early American Windows,"
                  WPS, 16: 198-224.

Forman, Henry Chandlee

    1938     Jamestown and St. Mary's: Buried Cities of Romance.
                  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

    1940     "The Bygone 'Subberbs of James Cittie,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 20: 475-486.

    1941     "The Old Hardware of James Town,"
                  Antiques, 39: 30-32.

    1942     "The St. Mary's City 'Castle', Predecessor of the Williamsburg Palace,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 22:136-143.

    1948     The Architecture of the Old South: The Medieval Style, 1585-1850.
                  Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    1957     Virginia Architecture in the Seventeenth Century.
                  CharlottesviIle: University Press of Virginia.

    1962     "A New Story about the Old Thoroughgood House,"
                  Norfolk Museum Bulletin, 12. Virginia Beach.

Frank, R. Neil

    n.d.       "The Wishart House Site, Virginia Beach, Virginia: A Report on Archaeological
                  MS. prepared for the Association for the Preservation Virginia Antiquities [APVA],

Gaines, William Harris, Jr.

    1957     "Green Spring: A Tale of Three Mansions,"
                  Virginia Cavalcade [VC], 6: 30-37. James City County.

Gamble, Robert S.

    1973     Sully, the Biography of a House.
                  Chantilly: Sully Foundation. Fairfax County.

Garnett, W.E.

    1948     "Housing of Bath County Folk." Rural Sociology Report No. 37.
                  MS., Blacksburg: Virginia Polytechnic Institute.

    1948     "Housing of Highland County Folk." Rural Sociology Report no. 42.
                  MS., Blacksburg: Virginia Polytechnic Institute.

Geier, Clarence R. and Sandra Raredon

    1978     Ghosts, Indians, and the Landed Gentry.
                  Harrisonburg: James Madison University Archaeological Research Center. Bath County.

Ghequiere, T.B.

    1877     "Richmond County Court House,"
                  American Architect and Building News, 2: 199.

Glassie, Henry

    1963     "The Appalachian Log Cabin,"
                  Mountain Life and Work [MLW], 39: 5-14.

    1964     "The Smaller Outbuildings of the Southern Mountains,"
                  MLW, 40: 21-25.

    1965     "The Old Barns of Appalachia,"
                  MLW, 40: 21-30.

[End page 81]

    1965     "Southern Mountain Houses: A Study of American Folk Culture."
                  M.A. thesis, Cooperstown Graduate Program, State University of New York
                  College at Oneonta.

    1966     "The Pennsylvania Barn in the South,"
                  Pennsylvania Folklife, 15 no. 2: 8-19; 15 no. 4:12-15.

    1968     "The Types of the Southern Mountain Cabin,"
                  in The Study of American Folklore, by Jan H. Brunvand. New York: W.W. Norton.

This is the basic article on the subject.

    1969     Pattern in the Material Folk Culture of the Eastern United States.
                  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Glassie's works are the outstanding analyses of folk architecture in the eastern United States. In addition, most of them, and particularly this one and Glassie 1975, have lengthy, extremely valuable bibliographies.

    1975     Folk Housing in Middle Virginia: A Structural Study of Historic Artifacts.
                  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Louisa and Goochland counties.

Gowans, Alan

    1964     Images of American Living: Four Centuries of Architecture and Furniture
                  as Cultural Expression
                  Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.

    1969     King Carter's Church: Being a Study in Depth of Christ Church, Lancaster County, Virginia.
                  Victoria, B.C.: University of Victoria Maltwood Museum.

Gray, Arthur

    1939     "Hinges from Old Houses,"
                  VMHB, 48: 133-141.

Gray, Louise E., Evelyn Q. Ryland, and Bettie J. Simmons

    1978     Historic Buildings in Middlesex County, Virginia, 1650-1775.
                  Berryville: Virginia Book Co.

Gregory, George C.

    1935     "Jamestown's First Brick State House,"
                  VMHB, 43: 193-199.

    1936     "Log Houses at Jamestown, 1607,"
                  ibid., 44: 287-295.

Argues, in the face of overwhelming evidence to the contrary, that first colonists lived in log houses.

Griffin, John W.

    1958     "Additional Archaeological Exploration of the West House Area."
                  MS., Yorktown: Colonial National Historical Park [CNHP]. Yorktown.

Hadfield, Kathleen Halverson

    1979     Amelia County Virginia, Buildings Survey: Sites and Survivors of the CoIonial
                  and Federal Period
                  Amelia: author.

Hammond, John Martin

    1922     "Claremont Manor on the James: An Historic Brick House of Queen Anne Type,"
                  House Beautiful, 51: 564-565. Surry County.

Harrington, J.C.

    1950     "Seventeenth-Century Brickmaking and Tilemaking at Jamestown, Virginia,"
                  VMHB, 58.

[End page 82]

    1977     "The Churchyard Walls at Christ Church,"
                  APVA Discovery, 9 no. 2: 7-10. Lancaster County.

Harris, Malcolm H.

    1977     Old New Kent County: Some Account of the Planters, Plantations, and Places
                  in New Kent County
                  2 vols. West Point, Va.: author.

Hart, John Fraser and Eugene Cotton Mather

    1961     "The Character of Tobacco Barns and their Role in the Tobacco Economy of the
                  United States,"
                  Annals of the Association of American Geographers [AAAG], 56: 274-293.

Hatch, Charles E.

    1941     "The Moore House: A National Shrine,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 21: 293-317. York County.

    1949     Jamestown: The Town Site and Its Story.
                  Washington: NPS.

    1969     The Ballard House and Family.
                  Washington: NPS. Yorktown.

    1969     Dependencies (Outbuildings) of the Dudley Digges House.
                  Yorktown: CNHP, NPS. Yorktown.

    1969     The Edmund Smith House: A History.
                  Yorktown: CNHP, NPS. Yorktown.

    1969     The Thomas Pate House and Lot 42 in Yorktown.
                  Yorktown: NPS.

    1973     Yorktown's Main Street (from Secretary Nelson's to the Windmill) and Military
                  Entrenchments Close in and Around the town of York
                  Denver: NPS.

Heffelfinger, Grace Pierce

    1972     "The 'I' House: An Architectural Form in Rockbridge County, Virginia,"
                  M.A. thesis, Cooperstown Graduate Program, State University of New York
                  at Oneonta.

Heite, Edward F.

    1967     Report of Excavations at the Site of Lower Westover Church, Charles City County,
                  Charles City: Westover Parish.

    1972     "Excavation of the Accomac Jailyard Wall,"
                  Quarterly Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Virginia, 26: 150-151.

Heite, Louise

    1969     "A Survey of Richmond Brickwork, 1790-1856,"
                  Quarterly Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Virginia, 23.

Hemphill, Edwin

    1957     "Why Barns: Then and Now,"
                  VC, 7 no. 3: 17-27.

Herman, Bernard A.

    1974     "Architectural Survey of Prince George County, Virginia, Including the City of
                  MS., VHLC.

    1974     "Architectural Survey of James City County, Virginia."
                  MS., VHLC.

[End page 83]

_____ and David G. Orr

    1975     "Pear Valley Et. Al.: An Excursion into the Analysis of Southern
                  Vernacular Architecture,"
                  Southern Folklore Quarterly, 39: 307-327. Eastern Shore.

Hoppin, Charles A.

    1927     "The House in Which George Washington Was Born,"
                  Tyler's Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine [TQ], 8: 73-103.
                  Westmoreland County.

    1927     "The Origin of Wakefield, Washington's Birthplace,"
                  ibid., 8: 217-241.

    1929     "The Seven Old Houses on the Wakefield Estate,"
                  ibid., 11: 85-93.

    1929     "Washington's Birthplace,"
                  ibid., 11: 145-162.

    1931     "Was Washington Born in a Cabin?,"
                  Antiques, 19: 98-101.

    1934     "George Washington's Birthplace,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 14: 256-258.

All of these articles are part of a continuing polemic by Hoppin against a Currier and Ives print purporting to show Washington's birthplace in Westmoreland County. Hoppin shows that this was really a house standing on Ferry Farm, Washington's boyhood home in King George County (and, the documents show, probably the house that Washington's father did own), and argues in favor of the 20th century brick mansion erected by the NPS as an accurate representation of George Washington's birthplace.

Howells, John Mead, comp.

    1931     Lost examples of Colonial Architecture.
                  Rpt. New York: Dover Publications, 1963.

Hudgins, Carter

    1976     "Miles Cary Archaeological Project. Second Interim Report. The 1976 Season."
                  MS., Williamsburg: Virginia Research Center for Archaeology.

Hudson, J. Paul

    n.d.       Plantation, Refuge, Prison, Statehouse: This Was Green Spring.
                  Jamestown: Jamestown Foundation. James City County.

Humelsine, Carlisle

    1976     "Fifty Years of Colonial Williamsburg,"
                  Antiques, 110: 1267-1291.

Isham, Norman Morrison

    1967     Early American Houses and A Glossary of Colonial Architectural Terms.
                  Rpt. New York: Dacapo Press.

Jervey, B.P.

    1947     "Old Buildings in Powhatan County,"
                  VMHB, 55: 95-96.

    1950     "Derwent in Powhatan County,"
                  VMHB, 58: 84-97.

Johns, Anne Page

    1935     "The Rolfe Property: Warren House at 'Smith's Fort Plantation,' 1652-1935,"
                  VMHB, 43: 200-204. Surry County.

[End page 84]

Keene, John T., Jr.

    1972     "The Nail Making Industry in Early Virginia,"
                  The Chronicle of the Early American Industries Association, 25 no. 1: 1-9.

Kegley, F.B.

    1966     "Shot Tower at Jackson's Ferry,"
                  Journal of the Roanoke Historical Society, 3 no. 1: 1-6. Wythe County.

Keister, J.L.

1916-17     "Early Architecture of Virginia,"
                  Architecture, 34: 262, 264, 266; 35: 36.

Kellam, Sadie Scott and V. Hope Kellan

    1931     Old Houses of Princess Anne, Virginia.
                  Portsmouth: Printcraft Press.

Kelso, William M.

    1973     "Historical Archaeology at Kingsmill: The 1972 Season, An Interim Report."
                  MS., Williamsburg: Virginia Research Center for Archaeology.

    1974     "An Interim Report on the Excavation at Kingsmill: The 1973 Season."
                  MS., Williamsburg: Virginia Research Center for Archaeology.

Kerkhoff, Jennie Ann

    1962     Old Homes of Page County, Virginia.
                  Luray: Lauck and Co.

Kimball, Fiske

    1922     Domestic Architecture of the American Colonies and of the Early Republic.
                  Rpt. New York: Dover Publications, 1966.

_____ William Graves Perry, Arthur A. Shurcliff and Susan Higginson Nash

    1935     The Restoration of Colonial Williamsburg in Virginia.
                  New York: Architectural Record.

King, George H.S.

    1937     "Washington's Boyhood Home,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 17: 265-281.

Kline, Agnes

    1971     Stone Houses on Linville Creek and their Communities, Rockingham County,
                  Harrisonburg: Park View Press.

Kocher, A. Lawrence and Howard Dearstyne

    1954     Shadows in Silver: A Record of Virginia, 1850-1900, in Contemporary
                  New York: Scribners.

Kornwolf, James D.

    1976     Guide to the Buildings of Surry and the American Revolution.
                  Surry: Surry county, Virginia. 1776 Blcentennial Committee.

Krusen, Jessie B.T.

    1975     Tuckahoe Plantation.
                  Richmond: Tuckahoe Plantation Publications. Goochland County.

    1976     "Tuckahoe Plantation,"
                  Winterthur Portfolio 11. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

[End page 85]

Lancaster, Robert A., Jr.

    1915     Historic Virginia Homes and Churches.
                  Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.

    1936     "Wales, Dinwiddie County, Virginia,"
                  VMHB, 44: 232-237.

Land, Robert Hunt, comp.

    1939     "Notes from Surry County Records which Relate to 17th Century Houses,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 19: 227-229.

Lay, K. Edward

    1974     "Mills in the Central Piedmont Region of Virginia,"
                  Echoes of History, 4 no. 4.

Lewis, John G.

    1975     "Coton,"
                  The Bulletin of the Loudoun County Historical Society, 1975: 1-71.

Lindsey, Mary

    1974     Historic Homes and Landmarks of Alexandria, Virginia.
                  Alexandria: Landmarks Society.

Loth, Calder

    1971     "The Plumb House, Waynesboro, Virginia,"
                  Augusta Historical Bulletin, 7 no. 2: 24-28.

    1974     "Notes on the Evolution of Virginia Brickwork from the Seventeenth to the Late
                  Nineteenth Century,"
                  APT Bulletin, 6 no. 2: 82-120.

Lyle, Royster

    1971     "Log Buildings in the Valley of Virginia,"
                  Roanoke Valley Historical Society Journal, 8 no. 1: 24-31.

_____ and Pamela Hemenway Simpson

    1977     The Architecture of Historic Lexington.
                  Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

McGroarty, William B.

    1931     "Presbyterian Meeting House, Alexandria,"
                  WM Q, 2d ser., 11: 357-358.

    1940     Old Presbyterian Meetinghouse at Alexandria, 1774-1874.
                  Richmond: William Byrd Press.

    1948     "Four Virginia 'Blenheim's',"
                  TQ, 29: 241-248.

Marsio, Peter C.

    1972     "Carpentry in the Southern Colonies during the Eighteenth Century with Emphasis
                  on Maryland and Virginia,"
                  Winterthur Portfolio 7. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

Mason, George Carrington

    1938     "Doorways of Colonial Churches in Virginia,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 18: 449-452.

    1942     "The Colonial Churches of Charles City County,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 22: 114-135.

This is one of a long series of articles in theWMQ and the VMHB that were collected in [the following work]:

[End page 86]

    1945     Colonial Churches of Tidewater Virginia.
                  Richmond: Whittet and Shepperson.

    1949     "The Court Houses of Princess Anne and Norfolk Counties,"
                  VMHB, 57: 403-415.

    1949     "The First Colonial Church of Denbigh Parish, Warwick County, Virginia,"
                  ibid., 57: 286-291.

    1958     "A Supplement to Colonial Churches of Tidewater Virginia,"
                  ibid., 66: 167-177.

Meeks, Carroll L.V.

    1951     "Lynx and Phoenix: Litchfield and Williamsburg,"
                  JSAH, 10 no. 4: 18-23.

Millar, Donald

    1925     "A Jacobean House in Virginia,"
                  Architectural Record, 57: 286-287. Bacon's Castle, Surry County.

Milner, John D.

    1975     "Germanic Architecture in the New World,"
                  JSAH, 34.

Moffett, Lee

    n.d.       Water Powered Mills of Fairfax County, Virginia.
                  Warrenton: author.

Morehead, Singleton Peabody

    1934     "The Castle,"
                  VMHB, 42: 293-303. New Kent County.

    1935     "Christ's Cross,"
                  ibid., 43: 1-7. New Kent County.

    1955     "Tazewell Hall: A Report on Its 18th Century Appearance,"
                  JSAH, 14: 14-17. Williamsburg.

_____ and A. Edwin Kendrew

    1935     "Restoration Work at the Warren House,"
                  VMHB, 43: 204-208. Surry County.

Morrison, Hugh

    1952     Early American Architecture.
                  New York: Oxford University Press.

Morton, W. Brown III

    1971     "Investigating the Origins of the Mahlon Schooley House, Waterford, Virginia,"
                  PA, 3 no. 1: 33-38.

Morton, W.S.

    1937     "The Dwelling House on the Glebe Land in the Parish of Saint Patrick in
                  Prince Edward County,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 17: 409-410.

    1939     "Notes from Amelia County Records Which Relate to Its Courthouse,"
                  ibid., 19: 378-379.

National Park Service

c. 1940     "Lightfoot House, Lot No 36."
                  MS., CNHP. Yorktown.

Neiman, Fraser D.,

    1978     "Domestic Architecture at the Clifts Plantation: The Social Context of Early
                  Virginia Building,"
                  Northern Neck Historical Magazine, 28 no. 1: 3096-3128.

This is a major essay on 17th-century Virginia vernacular building.

[End page 87]

Nelson, Lee H.

    1959     "Historic Structures Report; Architectural Data, Part I. Restoration of the
                  Dudley Digges House."
                  MS., CNHP. Yorktown.

    1959     "Historic Structures Report; Architectural Data, Part II Preparatory to the
                  Restoration of the Archer House, Lot 107 Water Street."
                  MS., CNHP. Yorktown.

    1960     "Historic Structures Report; Architectural Data, Part II Restoration of the
                  Dudley Digges House, Lot 77, Main Street, Yorktown, Virginia."
                  MS., CNHP.

Niederer, Frances J.

    1965     The Town of Fincastle, Virginia.
                  Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

Noël Hume, Ivor

    1962     Excavations at Rosewell, Gloucester County, Virginia, 1957-1959.
                  Washington: Smithsonian Institution.

    1963     Here Lies Virginia: An Archaeoloist's View of Colonist Life and History.
                  New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

    1966     "Excavations at Tutter's Neck in James City County, Virginia, 1960-1961,"
                  United States National Museum Bulletin 249, Paper 53: 29-72.

    1966     "Mathews Manor,"
                  Antiques, 90: 832-836.

    1974     Digging for Carter's Grove.
                  Williamsburg: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.

O'dell, Jeffrey M.

    1976     Inventory of Early Architecture and Historic and Archaeological Sites, County
                  of Henrico, Virginia
                  Richmond: County of Henrico.

Outlaw, Alain C.

    1974     "Excavations at Burke's Corner and Survey of the Skimino Meetinghouse Lot,
                  York County, Virginia."
                  MS., Williamsburg: Virginia Research Center for Archaeology.

Pierce, E.D.

    1951     "Courthouses of Lancaster County, 1656-1950,"
                  Northern Neck Historical Magazine, 1: 23-35.

Peterson, Arthur G.

    1935     "Flour and Grist Milling in Virginia, A Brief History,"
                  VMHB, 43: 98-108.

Peterson, Charles E.

    1935     "The Physical History of the Moore House, 1930-1934."
                  MS., CNHP. York County.

    1936     "Some Recent Discoveries at Jamestown,"
                  Antiques, 29: 192-194.

    1963     "A Parsonage House of Accomack, 1635,"
                  JSAH, 22: 36.

[End page 88]

    1973     "Sawdust Trail: Annals of Sawmilling and the Lumber Trade from Virginia to
                  Hawaii via Maine, Barbados, Sault Ste. Marie, Manchac and Seattle
                  to the year 1860,"
                  APT Bulletin, 5 no. 2: 84-153.

Pickens, Buford

    1975     Mr. Jefferson as Revolutionary Architect,"
                  JSAH, 34: 257-279.

Pierson, William H., Jr.

    1976     American Buildings and Their Architects: The Colonial and Neo-Classical Styles.
                  Garden City, New York: Anchor Books.

Pratt, Harden De V.

    1957     "The Restoration of Christ's Cross, New Kent County, Virginia,"
                  VMHB, 65: 328-331.

Quarles, Garland P.

    1971     Some Old Homes in Frederick County, Virginia.
                  Winchester: Farmers and Merchants National Bank.

Rawlings, James Scott

    1963     Virginia's Colonial Churches: An Architectural Guide.
                  Richmond: Dietz Press.

_____ and Vernon Perdue Davis

    1978     Virginians Ante-Bellum Churches.
                  Richmond: Dietz Press.

Reiff, Daniel D.

    1974     "Sources and Parallels in England of Eighteenth-Century Brick Hip-Roofed
                  Virginia Houses,"
                  JSAH, 33: 168.

Reps, John W.

    1972     Tidewater Towns: City Planning in Colonial Virginia and Maryland.
                  Williamsburg: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.

Riley, Edward M.

    1942     "The Colonial Court Houses of York County, Virginia,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 22: 399-414.

_____ and Charles E Hatch, Jr., eds.

    1955     James Towne in the Words of Contemporaries.
                  Washington: NPS.

Robertson, T.B.

    1914     "Court Houses of Northampton County,"
                  WMQ, 1st ser., 23: 51-58.

Rose, Harold Wickliffe

    1963     The Colonial Houses of Worship of America.
                  New York: Hastings House.

Rust, Jeanne Johnson

    1979     "The Little Brick House,"
                  Northern Virginia Heritage, 1 no. 1: 15-18. Fairfax.

Ryland , Elizabeth H.

    1939     "Homes in King William County: Comments and Corrections,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 19: 120-121.

    1940     "King William County and Its Court Houses,"
                  ibid., 20: 99-112.

[End page 89]

Sale, Edith Tunis

    1927     Interiors of Virginia Houses of Colonial Times.
                  Richmond: William Byrd Press.

    1930     Colonial Interiors, Second Series: Southern Colonial and Early Federal.
                  New York: William Helburn.

Scott, Mary Wingfield

    1941     Houses of Old Richmond.
                  Rpt. New York: Bonanza Books.

    1950     Old Richmond Neighborhoods.
                  Rpt. Richmond: Valentine Museum, 1975.

Scribner, Robert I.

    1957     "Digging Into Jamestown's Past,"
                  VC, 7: 40-47.

Shackleford, George Green

    1965     "Nanzatico, King George County, Virginia,"
                  VMHB, 73: 387-404.

Shippen, Thomas Lee

    1952     Westover Described in 1783.
                  Ed. L.H. Butterfield. Richmond: William Byrd Press.

Shurtleff, Arthur A.

    1930     "The 'Skinning' of Ancient Virginia Houses,"
                  TQ, 11: 289-292.

Shurtleff, Harold R.

    1939     The Log Cabin Myth: A Study of the Early Dwellings of the English Colonists
                  in America.
                  Ed. Samuel Eliot Morison, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

This is the classic refutation of the idea that the earliest English settlers built log houses.

Smith, Elmer L., John G. Stewart and M. Ellsworth Kyger

    1964     The Pennsylvania Germans of the Shenandoah Valley.
                  Allentown, Pa.:Pennsylvania German Folkore Society.

Smith, Eugenia B.

    1973     Centreville, Virginia: Its History and Architecture.
                  Fairfax: Fairfax County Office of Planning.

Smith, G. Hubert

    1960     "Report of Archaeological Excavations on Lot 77 in Yorktown."
                  MS., CNHP.

Snowden, W.H.

    1894     Some Old Historical Landmarks of Virginia and Maryland.
                  Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.

Spann, Barbara T.

    1976     Carlby.
                  Fairfax: Fairfax County Office of Comprehensive Planning. Originally in Sussex County.

Stephenson, Mary A.

    1942     Old Homes in Surry and Sussex.
                  Richmond: Dietz Press.

Stewart, Mrs. Victor W.

    1939     "Notes from Surry County Records Which Relate to the College Plantation,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 19: 376-377.

[End page 90]

Stitt, Susan

    1969     "The Will of Stephen Charlton and Hungar's Parish Glebe,"
                  VMHB, 77: 259-276. Northampton County.

Stone, Garry Wheeler

    1974     "St, John's: Archaeological Questions and Answers,"
                  Maryland Historical Magazine, 69: 146-168.

This article concerns the excavations of a 17th-century house in St. Mary's City, Md., of a type of house known to have existed in 17th-century Virginia as well, but of which no examples that age survive.

Swem, Earl G.

    1928     "Some Notes on the Four Forms of the Oldest Building of William and Mary College,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 8: 217-307.

    1930     "Supplementary Documents Giving Additional Information Concerning the Four Forms
                  of the Oldest Building of William and Mary College,"
                  ibid., 10: 68-86.

    1946     "Views of Yorktown and Gloucester Town, 1755,"
                  VMHB, 54: 100-105.

Tate, Thad W.

    1978     "From Survival to Prosperity: The Artistic Greening of Eighteenth-Century
                  The Key Reporter
, 44 no. 1: 1-3, 8.

Terrell, Isaac Long

    1970     Old Houses in Rockinham County 1750-1850.
                  Verona: McClure Press.

Thomas, William H.B.

    1969     "'The Full Tide of Prosperity': Colonel John Willis and His Orange County Houses,"
                  PA, 1 no. 1: 40-46.

Troubetzkoy, Ulrich

    1961     "Tuckahoe Plantation,"
                  VC, 10: 5-12. Goochland County.

Truedell, Clyde F.

    1938     "Report on the Restoration of the Lightfoot House."
                  MS., CNHP. Yorktown.

Turman, Nora Miller

    1974     Eastern Shore Heritage: Our Buildings.
                  Accomac: Accomack School Board.

Turner, W.R.

    1939     "The Hillsman House,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 19: 79-81. Amelia County.

Tyler, Lyon G.

    1896     "Were Colonial Bricks Imported from England?,"
                  Century Magazine, 51.

    1900     "The Oldest Brick House,"
                  WMQ, 1st ser., 8: 151.

    1929     "Historic Residences in Williamsburg,"
                  TQ, 11: 73-84.

    1935     "Colonial Brick Buildings,"
                  ibid., 17: 69-70.

[End page 91]

Upshur, Anne Floyd and Ralph T. Whitelaw

    1938     "Two of the Oldest Brick Dwellings in America,"
                  VMHB, 46: 212-221. Winona and Hungar's Glebe, Northampton County.

Upton, Dell

    1976     "Board Roofing in Tidewater Virginia,"
                  APT Bulletin, 8 no. 4: 22-44.

    1979     "Bottom House,"
                  Blue Ridge Institute Newsletter, 1 no. 5: 5. Franklin County.

    1979     "Early Vernacular Architecture in Southeastern Virginia."
                  PhD dissertation, Brown University.

    1979     "Toward a Performance Theory of Vernacular Architecture in Early Tidewater
                  Folklore Forum, 12 no. 2 (in press).

Van Derpool, James Grote, and Dumas Malone.

    n.d.       Historic St. Luke's.
                  Smithfield: Historic St. Luke's Restoration. Isle of Wight County.

Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission

    1976     Virginia Landmarks Register.
                  2d ed. Richmond: VHLC.

_____ and Historic American Buildings Survey

    1976     Historic American Buildings Survey: Virginia Catalog.
                  Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

Vlach, John Michael

    1978     The Afro-American Tradition in Decorative Arts.
                  Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art.

Waterman, Thomas Tileston

    1930     "Rosewell, Gloucester County,"
                  Architectural Forum, 52: 17-20.

    1935     "The Bay System in Colonial Virginia,"
                  WMQ, 2d ser., 15: 117-122.

    1936     The Old Court House Buildings, Stafford Court House,"
                  ibid., 16: 247, 587-588.

    1939     "English Antecedents of Virginia Architecture,"
                  Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 80 no. 1: 57-63.

    1944     "The Bruton Church of 1683 and Two Contemporaries,"
                  JSAH, 4 nos. 3-4: 43-46, 54.

    1944     The Mansions of Virginia, 1706-1776.
                  Rpt. New York: Bonanza Books.

    1945     "Architecture in Alexandria,"
                  Antiques, 47: 89- 92.

    1950     The Dwellings of Colonial America.
                  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

_____ and John A. Barrows

    1932     Domestic Colonial Architecture of Tidewater Virginia.
                  Rpt. New York: Dover Publications, 1969.

[End page 92]

Wayland, John W.

    1937     Historic Homes of Northern Virginia and the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia.
                  Staunton: McClure Company.

Weeks, Elie B.

    1979     "Orapax,"
                  Goochland County Historical Society Magazine, 11 no. 1: 5-17.

Whiffen, Marcus

    1957     "Some Virginian House Plans Reconsidered,"
                  JSAH, 16 no. 2: 17-19.

    1958     The Public Buildings of Williamsburg, Colonial Capital of Virginia: An
                  Architectural History
                  Williamsburg: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.

    1960     The Eighteenth-Century Houses of Williamsburg: A Study of Architecture and
                  Building in the Colonial Capital of Virginia
                  Williamsburg: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.

White, Goddard M.

    1921     "Details of Early Southern Architecture: Two Famous Mansions of Virginia,"
                  Architectural Forum, 34: 139-142; 35: 67-70. Westover, Sabine Hall.

Wilhelm, Eugene J., Jr.

    1967     "Folk Settlement Types in the Blue Ridge Mountains,"
                  Keystone Folklore Quarterly, 12: 151-171.

    1969     "The Blue Ridge Mill Complex,"
                  PA, 1 no. 1: 17-21.

Willis, Stanley

    1972     "Log Houses in Southwest Virginia: Tools Used in Their Construction,"
                  VC, 22: 36-47.

Wood, James, Alan Brenner, Clarence R. Geier, et. al.

    1978     Preliminary Statement on the Prehistoric and Historic Human Occupation of a
                  Section of the Back and Little Back Creek Valleys of Bath County, Virginia
                  (James Madison University Occasional Papers in Anthropology No. 3) Harrisonburg:
                  James Madison University.

Yonge, Samuel H.

    1904     "The Site of Old 'James Towne ', 1607-1698,"
                  VMHB, 12: 33-54, 113-134.

    1907     The Site of Old "James Towne," 1607-1698.
                  Richmond: Heritage Press.

Zehmer, John Granderson, Jr.

    1970     "The Early Domestic Architecture of Dinwiddie County, Virginia."
                  M. Arch. Hist. thesis, University of Virginia.

[End page 93]

Ziegler, C.A.

    1923     "An Architectural Ramble Through Virginia in Two Parts,"
                  American Architecture and Architectural Review, 123: 531-534; 124; 141-151.

  Dell Upton
Richmond, Virginia

[End page 94]


Thomas E. Barden, Assistant Professor of English at the University of Toledo, teaches English and folklore courses and has done research in Afro-American folklore and religion.

Mary Beaudry is a doctoral candidate in anthropology at Brown University. She is interested in the historical anthropology, archaeology, and folklore of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century North America.

Elizabeth Langhorne is a lecturer and author from Charlottesville, Virginia and has a particular interest in Thomas Jefferson's Monticello.

Charles L Perdue, Jr, Associate Professor of Folklore and English in the Departments of Anthropology and English at the University of Virginia, teaches courses in Anglo- and Afro-American folklore. With his wife, Nancy J. Martin-Perdue, he conducts research and writes on folklore and oral history.

Elmer Smith, Professor in the Sociology Department, James Madison University, has spent many years in researching various aspects of Virginia German folk culture and has published widely in this area.

Dell Upton is an architectural historian with the Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission, Richmond He has recently completed his PhD dissertation, "Early Vernacular Architecture in Southeastern Virginia," at Brown University.

Anne Warner, with her husband Frank Warner (d. 1978) has been collecting songs and stories along America's eastern seaboard since the late 1930's, and has published several articles on folklore. She is presently preparing the Warner Collection of songs and stories for publication.

Robert Winans, Associate Professor at Wayne State University in Detroit, teaches courses in English and folklore and has a longstanding interest in early banjo playing styles. He is currently working to complete a recording demonstrating the early minstrel banjo style.
[End page 95]

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